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Accident And A Hazard Children And Young People Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Young People
Wordcount: 4641 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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A hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment. Most hazards are dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm; however once a hazard becomes “active”, it can create an emergency situation. A hazard does not exist when it is not happening. A hazardous situation that has come to pass is called an incident. Hazard and vulnerability interact together to create risk. (Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia information taken from internet)

An accident is caused by somebody’s action even if it was intended or unintended.

A hazard is caused by a particular set of circumstances which could be avoided or foreseen, hazards could become a threat or risk to health or life. Most hazards cause accidents – for example, in my nursery a girl was riding a scooter and accidently run into another child causing a big graze on the other child leg. This specific situation shows a typical accident, the accident was caused by her being excited and not careful in her actions. The girl was not aware of what her actions (driving fast on a scooter) can cause.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 3

Accident (somebody’s action) – here a child bumping into another child while riding a scooter in a careless way.

Hazard (a situation and potential risk) – here a child riding a scooter too fast – unsupervised action (nursery worker should recognise the hazard and speak to the child to prevent an accident).

An accident can happen at any time, it really does not matter if a child is living with one parent, two parents or grandparents or in foster care. An accident can happen at any time we cannot prevent them but we can and should be vigilant. (Health and Safety guidance should be applied).

3.2 Summarise common types of accidents and injuries in pre-school children

The most common examples of accidents and injuries in nursery/pre-school could be:

Head injury can often cause loss of consciousness especially in a child as the head is still a very fragile organ.

What needs to be done: Most probably there will be a bump, or more seriously a skin cut with some bleeding – we need to control the bleeding by applying slight pressure with a cotton pad, the child needs to sit down or lay down, an action as sending the child to a hospital might be necessary, first aider needs to monitor level of consciousness, vomiting etc.

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Example: In my work place we had a case of a head injury as a child hit her head while running down the field. The child fell down and hit her head on the ground, unfortunately there was a stone and it caused a cut to the skin, bleeding appeared immediately, as the tissue on the head is very prone to bleeding.

The first aider sat the child down, cleaned the wound with a wet cotton pad, while applying slight pressure to stop the bleeding, the bleeding stopped after eventually. The first aider examined the wound and decided the cut was not deep and a plaster was applied.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 4

A note went home with the child to inform her parents about the accident, and asking them to keep close observation in case of any changes in behaviour like headaches, blurred vision or vomiting which would require a hospital visit.

The head is a very delicate part of the body and if disturbed, may cause concussions.

Child is unconscious – in most cases this is a result of an accident or extreme stress/emotions

What needs to be done: with a baby or a toddler we must check breathing by using a mirror against the mouth or watching their upper body i.e. chest rising. With the older child we need to assess a child’s response by gently shaking shoulders and we should be asking questions i.e. what is your name?

The airways, breathing and circulation should be checked, we need to take care of visible conditions and place a child in a recovery position,(laying them on their side, gently tilt their head back to open their airway.) call 999 for an ambulance.

Child has Convulsions – the cause of convulsion is often due to a high temperature, or a child may have epilepsy.

What needs to be done: high temperature we need to remove child’s clothes, we need to protect the child from injury so space around must be clear, no objects or furniture if possible, sponge the child with lukewarm water; when possible place in a recovery position, dial 999 for an ambulance.

Child is bleeding – the wound has no visible objects inside.

What needs to be done, we need to sit or lay child down, cover the wound with a pad or dressing and apply pressure with fingers or hand, if it is possible raise and support the injured body part, call 999 for an ambulance, we might need to treat for shock so lay the child down and raise their legs if possible, loosen tight clothes, cover with a piece of clothing or a blanket if you have one to hand.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 5

Child is bleeding and we can see some objects in the wound like i.e. pieces of glass, wood.

What we need to do? We need to lay child down, if possible gently remove the objects from the wound and cover the wound with a sterile pad or dressing, apply pressure (child can put its fingers or hand on either side of the wound) pad around wound, raise and support the injured part (hand, leg). With severe bleeding we must call for help, 999.

Child has a nose bleed. A cold compress on the child’s nose in most cases is enough to help stop the bleeding, child has to lean forward, we must not raise the child’s head and squeeze nostrils as they may choke on there own blood. We need to realise that if a nose bleed lasts longer than 10 minutes and is heavy we must call for an ambulance.

Child has cuts or grazes with less severe bleeding. What needs to be done – clean with plain water and cover with a clean (best sterile) dressing, we’re not suppose to use antibacterial wipes as they may cause (in some children) an allergic reaction.

Child has broken bones. What needs to be done? We need to steady and support the injured body part i.e. use a sling for an arm, protect with bandage or padding. We have to remember not to move a broken limb unnecessarily. Most definitely we need to send the child in our care to hospital.

Shock and high stress level – child case. What needs to be done? It may be caused by an injury, bleeding or severe upset, child will be sweaty, clammy, their pulse may be rapid. Shock can be very serious, it may even cause unconsciousness.

What need to be done? We need to lay child down, raise legs so blood flows to the head, we need to cover with a blanket, remember to loosen tight clothes and dial 999 for an ambulance.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 6

Allergies and allergic reactions caused by different sources. There are many kinds of allergies which can be caused from a variety of sources. For example an allergy can be due to a sting, medicines or cleaning products (i.e. bleach).

Food products such as peanuts, milk, cheese etc, can also be responsible for an allergic reaction. The body reacts quickly as the skin may become red and blotchy, swelling of the face and neck can appear aswell as problems with breathing.

What we need to do? If the reaction is severe we immediately need to call an ambulance. Most children with allergies are already diagnosed by their GP so nursery workers are informed and aware. Epi-pens are carried with children at all times. Injection with this automatic device would be immediately necessary in case of an allergy reaction.

Choking What need to be done? We need to remove any obvious obstruction from the child’s mouth. Five back slaps need to be applied immediately between the shoulders. Older children need to lean forward, we should stand behind the child and give five chest thrusts (fist positioned against lower breast bone and grasp with the other hand, both pressed sharply into child chest). Calling for an ambulance by a bystander is advisable.

Asthma attack What needs to be done? Most of the children with asthma would be diagnosed by their doctor so early years practitioners would be aware the condition. The child would carry an inhaler, and we must let the child use it whenever required. If a child is not able to use it itself we have to help them and instruct them when to breathe in. Calming the situation and slow breaths would be advisable. (All children with asthma have and usually carry with them their inhaler at all times) While helping the child we need to make them comfortable i.e. sitting down in a comfortable position. Remember if the attack does not subside we need to call for an ambulance immediately.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 7

Burns and scalding. What needs to be done? We need to cool the wound immediately with plenty of cold water i.e. place under running tap or apply wet cloth for a minimum of ten minutes; remember to remove any tight clothes, watches, bracelets. Remember if the items are stuck to the burn – leave them, do not force the removal but cover the wound with clean cloth and take or send to hospital immediately.

A swallowed poison i.e. berries, tablets or harmful liquids. What we need to do? Remember not to try to make child sick. If a child is sick by itself we need to take a sample of the vomit to hospital for testing. Immediate hospital treatment is necessary so call 999. Watch for breathing difficulties and loss of consciousness, be with the child all the time.

Back and neck injuries. This can happen after falls from climbing frames, swings, slides, trees etc. What we need to do? Remember not to move the child. Make them comfortable, support neck and head. Immediately dial 999 for an ambulance

Electric shock. This can happen when unsupervised electric equipment is left near a child or child decides to play with uncovered electric plugs. What needs to be done? Call for an ambulance. We need to assess the current danger so we are not exposed to the electrical fault ourselves.

Drowning can happen in unattended baths, padding pools, buckets of water, fishponds.

What needs to be done? We need to start ABC immediately and call for an ambulance 999.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 8


Airways – open the airways by gently lifting the child’s chin and tilting the head back slightly. Look, listen and feel for breathing. The tilted position lifts the tongue away from the back of the throat so that it does not block the airways.

Breathing – if a child is not breathing and the airways has been opened we need to breath for him or her and supply oxygen to the blood by giving artificial ventilation (first aid course needed)

Circulation – we need to check for circulation by feeling for a pulse in the neck, in a case when the heart has stopped chest compressions must be applied to force blood through the heart and around the body also artificial ventilation has to be applied again first aid course will teach necessary techniques.’ (Source – First Aider Manual by St. John’s Ambulance).

(Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia / www.nhs.uk information taken from internet)

3.3 Explain the relationship between the age of a child and the potential for accidental injury.

The smaller the child the lesser the danger as the child is not always moving and exploring the world around them, for example a baby under the age of six months usually lays on its back and sleeps, one of the dangers here we have to acknowledge is ‘cot death’. So never put a baby to sleep on its front as there is a risk of suffocation if the child can not lift its head to turn its face to one side. but babies being less mobile can still pose a problem as they may roll around when being changed e.g. on a bed or changing table and may cause injury should they roll off if not properly supervised.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 9

The child depends heavily on an adult to keep them safe, as time moves on this changes as the child can move and touch objects in its surroundings.

As they grow child curiosity becomes visible, the urge to move and explore the world around increases.

Child resistant bottle tops may only slow children down, children as young as three or four may be able to open these types of tops, as a child grows adult supervision and vigilance should increase. The younger the child the lesser is their sense of danger.

A child does not realise what can harm him/her. The vulnerability to accidents in babies and young children is very high.

A baby of a few months would spend their day mostly lying on its back while a toddler can hardly sit still and needs constant supervision.

The older the child the more curiosity it has and is interested in the surrounding world so it may meet many hazards.

Children as young as three should lean about road safety and understand what traffic is and their dangers.

Older children must lean how to cross the road safely and be aware of their surroundings, as road safety poses a very high risk to children of school age.

Mobile phones and music players (with headphones) must be used with caution when walking as they may make a child oblivious to certain hazards.

We adults need to be aware of all potential hazards and risks our children may face as their environments change, when possible we must have our eyes on the child at all time.

Accidental injury can happen unintentionally in everyday life but our role is to supervise children and introduce rules, boundaries and awareness as soon as we can to them.

(Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia / www.nhs.uk / direct.gov.uk information taken from internet)

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 10

3.4 Compare the type of injuries that may be sustained by a baby under 6 months, a baby who can crawl, a toddler, and a pre-school child as a result of a given accident.

Accident. (A bump on a head due to a child falling down)

Injuries sustain by a baby under 6 months.

Newborn and up to 6 month old babies are totally dependent on the adult for all its needs, being hardly mobile it’s unlikely that it can develop a bump to the head by itself. Unless the example given above happens or it’s caused by an adult’s carelessness i.e. an adult drops a baby on the floor.

This injury is very dangerous and can even cause the death to a baby. Immediate call for an ambulance is a must.

A fall on the floor will in most cases cause a bump on the head (if a child falls head first), this may cause a brain concussion and brain damage as a consequence.

A baby most definitely would crawl near 12 months of age.

At this age a child could be cruising around furniture and may experiences a lot of falls onto its bottom. A bump to the head might be a result of falling down and hitting its head in the process. Visible marks can appear like bruises on the face, a head bump would show up, nose bleeding may appear. Injuries to the head of any type would need further investigation as this can be harmful to a baby’s well being. Visit to a hospital is the most advisable action.

A toddler

Is able to walk, climb, run and jump, all these actions can carry their own hazards and a bump to the head maybe a common occurrence, again no matter how small the incident, full precautions should take place.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 11

Pre-school child would be a child of 3 to 4 years.

At this stage a child walks steadily, can jump and runs a lot. Very bold and active time as a child is able to climb gym frames and may fall a lot. Falling in the playground shouldn’t really harm the child, but it could frighten them and cause some tears. A fall from a slide in the playground or falling from a tree however may cause a broken body part i.e. arm or leg and falling from a tree could also cause a spine injury or brain concussions.

3.5 Review at least three hazards in each of the following areas:


Hazard – hot iron with hanging cable left on the kitchen surface.

Child is likely to pull the cable and cause the iron to fall, it most definitely will fall on child head or arms causing serious injury like burns and bumps as irons are very heavy.

Hazard -kitchen cupboard with chemicals i.e. bottles of bleach, door without a child safe lock.

Children will always reach for a colourful bottle and may want to play with it. May copy mum cleaning actions. If bottle is not closed properly and opened, the liquid may cause burns to eyes or skin if splashed. Child may not always drink it as the smell is off putting but it may try – danger of poisoning.

Hazard – Hot drinks e.g. coffee or tea left close to the worktops edge.

Child maybe able to reach and bring hot drink down over them causing burning or scolding as liquid is hot.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 12

Hazard – hot pan with food left on unprotected cooker too close to the edge with its handle facing outwards.

Child is most likely to touch it and cause serious burns to its skin if it falls over them.

Living room

Hazard – adult use objects on a coffee table.

Child reaches for the items if they happen to be small there is a risk of choking if they are sharp (i.e. letter knife to open letters) there may be a risk of cuts. Also hot drinks can burn.

Hazard – Blinds/cables on the floor i.e. lamp cable.

Child can trip over wires or cables causing the item to fall also may tie blind cords or cables around there neck leading to a risk of strangulation, cable might be broken with live electricity, so there could also be a risk of an electric shock.

Hazard – plants on display in reachable position.

Plants could be poisonous if eaten, a risk of poisoning.


Hazard – water on the bathroom floor.

Slippery floors may pose a risk of falling, bump on head or in worse case broken body parts.

Hazard – child unsupervised in the bath.

Huge risk of drowning; never leave a baby unattended in the bath. Water too hot, a risk of scolding or burns. Water too cold, a risk of getting a cold or chill.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 13

Hazard – light switch with its string hanging too low

There is a huge risk of suffocation if a child puts the string around its neck and accidently falls over.


Hazard – poisonous plants and bulbs.

Again possibility that child may eat plants or at least put a part of it in its mouth (i.e. bulbs of daffodils are poisonous if eaten). Child can touch them which may cause an allergic reaction or rash i.e. nettle.

Hazard – animal’s faeces.

There is a risk of infection (i.e. bacterial e-coli or worms) if a child falls down touches the faeces does not wash its hands and touches its mouth or eats something with dirty hands.

Hazard – garden pond i.e. fishpond.

There would be a huge risk of a child drowning, especially if a child is of a young age and left to explore unsupervised in the garden.

On the stairs. Possible hazard – steep steps.

A risk of a child falling down, especially on the way down or if loses its balance.

Hazard – no gate preventing from climbing the stairs.

Again, a risk of a possible fall with fatal consequences i.e. broken arm.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 14

Hazard – balustrades on the stairs are broken or missing.

A child may fall down through them, if the railings are far apart, might be a risk of a child being able to get its head stuck between them, causing suffocation.

Hazard – loose or damaged carpet on the stairs.

There is a risk of a child tripping or slipping over and falling dawn.

(Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia / www.nhs.uk information taken from internet)

3.6 Explain how a given area can be made safer for a baby under 6 months, a crawling baby, a toddler, and a child who can climb.

Area given: i.e. living room

The living room is the heart of the house as people tend to spend the most time there and socialise. This can be a dangerous room in the house, especially when unsupervised. That is why children should be supervised at all times. It is essential that safety gates are fitted to the area’s we do not want the children to go i.e. open plan kitchen with living room leading to the kitchen.

TV cables need to be tided away securely so there is no danger of a child tripping over them or playing with them.

Any plants we have on display for decoration should be kept away from the reach of a child and checked if they may be poisousness.

Kitchen can be made safer for a baby under 6 months:

The kitchen is not really a place for a baby but if they must be there we must put them in a cot, pram or baby rocking chair – do not leave them on the table as they may turn over and fall.

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 15

We must make sure that the area is clean and safe i.e. nothing can fall from a cupboard onto baby or no hot fluids can splash on them.

Kitchen can be made safer for a crawling baby:

Fitting a safety gate to prevent him/her from entering the room, all cables/cords should not be loose or on the floor; clean floors with no objects of leftover food pieces (hygiene is extremely important) as baby would definitely put anything in its mouth or touch it. (Pets bowls should be removed when a crawling child is present)

Kitchen can be made safer for a toddling baby:

Doing all the things mention above as well as – all lower cupboards should be fitted with child proof locks to prevent easy opening, we have to be very careful when using the oven near a toddler as the oven door could become very hot (awareness to ‘Hob’ temperatures as they cool down should be observed ), the washing machine and dishwasher should be fitted with a door catches, fridge/freezer – door kept shut at all times and a door catch to prevent children from gaining access to the contents (medicine should be kept in high door compartments) kitchen bins should have lids -hygiene is extremely important (children should never touch raw meat or eggs as there is very high risk of e-coli infection).

Kitchen can be made safer for a baby who can climb

Again doing all the points mention above, we have to remember to take everything into consideration as our baby can climb onto chairs and grab at anything on a table. We need to keep an eye on our baby as a climb onto a chair can easily be followed up onto a table (risk of serious fall).

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 16

The older the child the more risk of injury is involved and more precautions are needed i.e. microwaves, kettles, toasters need to be pushed back on the work surface and their cables should not be left trailing over any edge. Irons should be kept in the cupboard and we should never carry out ironing while we have young children running around (risk of serious scalds).

All kitchen utensils should be kept in safe places away from the reach of our baby. Knives should never be left on the work surface, we need to remember to place them in a draw out of the reach of child when not in use.

No plastic bags should be left in the kitchen for the child to play with as the child can put it on over its head and suffocate , they need to be stored away from the reach of children i.e. inside of a cupboard. Medicine – the best place to store it should be in a lockable cupboard, if it needs to be in a fridge keep it in a high closable door compartment. All cleaning equipment should be kept in original packaging and in a locked cupboard. Alcohol should be kept in a locked cupboard.

(Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia / www.nhs.uk information taken from internet)

3.7 In relation to the hazard and mobility of the child explain how the risk of injury can be reduced.

Every house, setting and environment will have its own risks. This means that parents and early year’s workers need to be able to identify the risks and take measures to prevent them. Nowadays there is a good range of safety equipment available and this combined with good supervision and commonsense can prevent many injuries to children

Mrs Nicola Dejong

Student Number: NC36066

Assignment No: 1 page 17

We need to take active responsibility for safety in our setting. Most accidents are preventable.

One of the major ways in which we can keep children safe is by recognising potential dangers/hazards and clear them away, we must also actively supervise any children in our care. This means watching them carefully and thinking about what is happening. For example a child who is playing with a skipping rope might put it around another’s child neck and start to pull it. The level of our supervision has to be increased when supervising very young children and babies as they have so little sense of danger. They are very vulnerable to accidents for example toddlers becoming interested in climbing may also be less stronger in their grip movements comparing to older children.

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How can the risk of injury be reduced? We need to constantly check for hazards, accidents can also be prevented by using safety equipment correctly. It is a common issue for safety equipment to be available and then not used (i.e. bike helmets not worn because child does not like wearing it). All early years workers in all settings have a duty to use safety equipment at all times and to report hazards that are not being managed in the environment i.e. wear and tear – frayed carpets, cracks in equipment, screws/nails coming loose or protruding etc, human error – forgetting to close safety gate, vandalism – broken glass, raised floors or pavements – broken windows, weather conditions – ice on pathways. Safety equipment also needs to be checked regularly to make sure that it remains effective. The keys to preventing accidents are:

Good and active adult supervision at all times.

An awareness of hazards in the surrounding environment.

Correct use of safety equipment at all times.

(Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia / www.nhs.uk information taken from internet)


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