Technologies are factors that impacts on how any business is operated. Therefore, for each development of new technologies, a business may have to totally change their operating process. The change of technology will affect the way a company carries out business.
Through the ages the travel and tourism industry has developed significantly with the development of new technology. On a global scale new technology has changed the way of tourism. In the dark ages travel on land was in litters or chariots and small boats was used to travel on sea. Tourism and pleasure travel was in existence but otr active during this time, but by the middle of the Middle Ages, large numbers took on a new life with the main purpose of traveling to Europe for religious purposes. Travel in the 18th century was by high society people mainly to visit spas a major attraction which also provided social events, games, dancing, gambling and sea-bathing. With the development of railway in the late 1830’s, direct contribution of major seaside resorts was established and gave everyone an opportunity to travel as demand for vacation travel grew. The first publicly advertised excursion train developed by Thomas Cook, who was then looked upon as the first travel agent and now owns one of the largest travel agency in the world.
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As the need for technology grew throughout the years, various inventions took place and increased the travel and tourism industry. Leading into the 20th century where introduction of motorcar and the first twin engine aircraft which allowed for the travel of large number of people in 1958. Tourist discovered increasing access to a growing array of destinations with the great increase of technological advancements in the mid and late 20th century.
Communicating technology aid in making airline increasingly accessible from the promotion of destinations to attracting travelers’ attention to enabling instant reservations and payment collections. Through the significance of communicating technology, modern tourism is fully equipped with the ability to communicate their benefits and to sell themselves to potential visitors. On return those potential visitors can reach points of interest at their chosen destination. In 1953, through the introduction of communication technology airline reservation way slinked directly with travel and booking agents. This brought about a generous increase in the tourism according to “the learning and teaching network”. this link made the entire booking process more easier and efficient as more airlines capitalized on it.
As the improvement on technology increased modern internet allowed tourist quick and easy access to information such as travel destinations, lodging and dining options at the destination, up to the minute wait time and making reservations before departing for their chosen destination. The use of telephones also allowed travelers quick contact without ever experiencing a busy signal or getting out pf bed. It also allowed for the collection of payment from prospective travelers before departing for the destination. According to ” the journal of information technology and tourism”, modern communication technology likewise 21st century developments in mobile telephone technology allows for advertising of attractions at various tourist destinations to target visitors.
The impact of technology in the travel and tourism industry is enormous as more and more travelers can compare and look for all kinds of information available on the internet about potential destinations. As stated by China daily, according to “John Liu” , the executive vice-president and head of greater chins at Google, 85% of travelers do their research on the internet about potential destinations and the average traveler does 55 online searches for bookings, travel guides and visas before a booking.
What seemed to be impossible ion the pas like the impact of global positioning System on how airlines operate, self-check in of luggage, online bookings and so much mire is now at present become acceptable. Though technology has totally transformed the travel and tourism industry, according to the “daily observer”, it stills requires considerable financial investments and in addition tourist destination must continue to provide innovations in customer service, attractions and economic development to continue producing attractive destination despite the numerous avenues for promoting of the area.
Identify the pros and cons of community based tourism
A community implies individuals with some kind of collective responsibility and the ability to make decision by representative bodies. Community based tourisms that in which local residents of mainly rural areas invite tourist to visit their community with the provision of overnight accommodation. Although community based tourism has it advantage, there are also disadvantages which will both be outlined. As well as stating how community based tourism has impacted the country.
Advantages of community based tourism
- Allows education and training growth of local people.
- Integrates the natural beauty and the daily life of rural communities.
- Allows tourist and locals a chance to experience other cultures.
- Promotes productive sustainable practices within its tourism offerings.
- Creation of job and economical development.
- Each individual in the community learns to work as a team in order to keep the community in welcoming and hospitable manner.
- Local people become educated in all aspect of managing the business of tourism.
- Persons no longer have to depend on livestock as a only source of income.
- Income generated can be used on national and local levels to better educate, improve infrastructure, fund conservation efforts, promote more responsible tourism and aid in the benefits of tourism projects.
- Interest to conserve the living environment will be on the increase of local residents.
- Foreign exchange generated.
- Development of skills for local people.
- Local businesses, shops, restaurants, recreational facilities, natural attractions,, infrastructure and transport network all receive benefits from the gains.
- Wealth creation and access to essential services such as: water, sanitation, transport and telecommunications.
Disadvantages of community based tourism
- Infections and diseased can be brought to a host destination.
- Inability of local business owners to compete with large corporations.
- Degrading of local infrastructure set in place due to the overbearing of heavy traffic of cars and tour buses.
- The host community left behind to pay for repair of damages as most of the profits return to their own countries in situations involving tourist oriented corporations
- Destruction to the natural habitat and resource in the community.
- May not be as medically advanced.
- Lack of respect for local cultures such as: tourist walking through local market in bathing suit. This not only offends but contributes to the undermining of social standards.
- Loss of potable water, loss of animal populations and the spread of disease and infection resulting from the over production in the form of water and air pollution, litter and frequent overflow of sewage systems.
- Increase in crime, mostly petty theft and pick pocketing and sometimes sexual assault.
- Luxuries such as: heated water for bathing that is not available to local residents in communities often cause tension between local population and tourist.
- Some large resorts take away from the small scale instead of giving to local communities.
- Impact of community based tourism on the country as a whole
While it is important one widespread scale for the future development of the country as it open doors of opportunities for Jamaicans as a a whole. The effect on the developments of community based tourism has contributed positively and negatively on the country. The economic, socio cultural and environmental impacts on the country are as follows.
- Increase employment and technology
- Improved quality of life
- Better health care and education
- Improvement of the infrastructure
- Creation and attraction of foreign exchange
- Preservation of plants, botanical gardens, animal, etc
- Utilization of natural resources as attractions
- Creation of tours, hiking, ecotourism. Enjoying the natural environment without taking do exchanging anything
- Language barriers broken down encourage entrepreneurship
- Exposure to other cultures and social standards
- Cultural preservation
- Exposure with other music forms
- Black market trading
- Cultural erosion
- Exposure to STD’s and sti’s
- Illegal vending
- Environmental degradation and depletion
- Damage to natural resources, illegal removal of plants, deforestation
- Uneven distribution of wealth
- Greater possibility for negative foreign influence on economy
- Neglect of local recreation facilities
Is community based tourism an alternative type that can be used to diversify the Jamaica Tourism Product and provide Jamaica with a competitive advantage?
A community is seen as individuals with some kind of collective responsibility and the ability to make decision by representative bodies. Though not having proper management bypass local residence the benefits gains from community tourism. As explained by “Alicia Knight” community tourism is a type of tourism owned and operated by the people in the community. Thought community tourism needs to work closely with mainstream tourism, it is the right type of tourism needed to provide Jamaica with a competitive advantage.
The way forward is to get our own local people educated about their own cultures, heritage, environment and the tourism product. For example, most large resorts use foreigners at top level management post. By doing this the gains are not used in Jamaica as most of their earnings are returned to their host country. But when local people are trained with the requisite skills needed and sure are educated about tourism and its product. The tourism industry no longer have to view locals a sonly capable of doing lower level work such as, bellhops, laundresses, gardeners and waiters just to name a few.
The income and gains generated from having employ more locals in the industry improve the infrastructure of the country, enhance the community and improve the quality of life of locals, thus the profits are spread within the country which also means that Jamaica would be facing less depth as there would be a balance in the national reserve.
Who is better capable of teaching and introducing visitors to our heritage and culture? Who is best able to help protect the country’s natural habitat and resources? Certainly only Jamaicans can ensure visitor satisfaction in all aspect of offering them the opportunity to explore Jamaica safely and interact with our people through community based tourism. In leading the way for the future development of the country through the importance of sustainable development can only be achieved by diversifying the tourism product to include all the special interest types of tourism through community based tourism.
Discuss the importance of delivering quality service in the hospitality industry
According to “Lazer and Payton 1999”, the delivery of quality customer service is one of the major challenges facing hospitality managers and will be an essential condition in the emerging, keenly competitive global hospitality markets. For thru delivery of quality hospitality service, which involves people, management of people and interactions between staff and guest the building blocks of quality service in hospitality must have proper and effective management and maintenance.
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When quality service is being delivered, hospitality businesses gain in profit rewards that will unimproved the quality of the service been provided, increase the guests perception of them, enhance the market and guest satisfaction and word of mouth advertising. Thus, it is important to continue improving quality service delivery systems and train and empower staff, develop procedures to deliver what guest want, evaluate and modify service delivery systems, consider the guest being served, determine what the guest desires and implement revised systems which should focus on exceeding the guest expectations.
For hospitality businesses to more effectively manage and maintain the delivery of quality of service, hospitality managers will need to identify and outline operational and significant strategy and in effect, focusing on the encounters that makes a difference to the experience of each guest.
Raise to the point questions that are important to the quality of service such as; Is service limited to a luxury package or does it include budget travelers? Which staff members are involved in providing the service?What skills do they need? What training is been provided? How committed are they to service goals? Is team co-operation or individual empowerment required? What staff members deal with what guest? Are the staff presentations and appearances appropriate? What attitudes is appropriate, friendly, open, helpful, warm service, efficient, unconstructive, uninvolving or unthreatening service? Are the interfaces between different functional areas fully operations? Are the criteria for success clearly defined? Is everyone involved aware of guests needs and concerns? Is the information necessary to respond effectively to guests needs readily available? Is the appropriate technology being fully used? Are the necessary systems to support the encounter in place? Is there adequate space to handle each of the activities such as; waiting, completing forms, storing or handling luggage and assembling tours? Did the dynamics of the exchange proceed smoothly? Have employees been given the training needed? Does the structure of the organization help or hinder performance/ Are the service providers given the facilities and financial and human support needed? Do service providers have the appropriate attitude? Is the right emphasis being place on service quality? Do any languages or cultural barriers exist? Is the management style and marketing orientation appropriate for the task?
The importance of the delivery of quality service involves not only being specific of and for a particular thing but also involves giving the strength and encouragement needed to keep business from falling or sinking. It requires knowing exactly where the service encounters will occur and if the space is appropriately designed to facilitate the encounters. There also have to be a watt in which hospitality managers get things done and their ideas organized to work together. Most importantly, since the people who work in the industry are involved in providing quality service. It is of major importance to train and empower staff by providing incentives and reward systems for task performed.
As read by “Postma and Jenkins 1997” using internal and external measurements to monitor the quality of service in hospitality industry will outline the technical , process, functional and relational, and experienced quality in hospitality industries. For the importance delivery of quality of service in the travel and tourism hospitality businesses, it involves direct and to the point questions that will allow clear decision making by hospitality manager to improve services provided and to meet the challenges faced by hospitality industries.
Identify differences between service delivery in hospitality industry and service delivery in other businesses
Just as hospitality businesses, other business offers quality service delivery. There are no differences as for the delivering quality customer in any business as one would have to.
Be visible as soon as a customer enters
Greet the customer in a friendly manner and maintain professionalism
Show that you are willing to help and listen carefully if the customer has an enquiry always be cheerful and courteous
Make sure to end with a sweet note
Major players implement ways of using community based tourism as a solution for growth in tourism.
Tourism industry fully utilizes all the developments of technology foe economic significance of Jamaica.
Hospitality industries continuer the delivery of quality service to exceed their customers’ expectations which will result in rewards for them.
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