Krobeber 1996, cited from Zhong, Zhang, Yang and Guo 2007 develops a related decision making model. Within this model, he claims that the tourist behaviour is determined by three elements: travel perception, travel attitude and travel motivation. He further suggests that there are two level influences. The first level influence of Krobeber (1996, cited from Zhong, Zhang, Yang and Guo 2007) can be affected from internal factors such as personal psychological factor and the second level influence comes from external social factors such as family background or group influence.
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The main contributions regarding motivation is the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model (Maslow 1970), the escape or seek model (Iso-Ahola 1982; Ross and Iso-Ahola 1991) and the push and pull method (Crompton 1979). Mill and Morrison (1985) argues that travel motivations fit into Maslow’s hierarchical needs – namely, physiological, safety, belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization. Also they identified two other needs: aesthetics and knowledge. The human needs physiological, safety/security and belonging/love were categorized as tension-reducing, while the self-esteem, self-actualization, acquiring knowledge and aesthetic as inductive – arousal-seeking motives (Figure 2.1)
Motivation is one of variables that can explain tourist behavior; it is regarded as one of the most important variables (Baloglu and Uysal 1996). There are many of researches assure that travel decision making is best explained and predicted by the push and pull approach include Backman, Backman, Uysal and Sunshine 1995; Baloglu and Uysal 1996; Ercan, Uysal and Yoshioka 2003. Crompton (1979) explains that motivation is a necessary and important force behind all behavior.
People travel because they are pushed and pulled to do so by motivational factors (Baloglu and Uysal 1996). Push motivation is related to the decision, whether to go, and pull motivation addresses the question of where to go (Klenosky 2002). Crompton (1979) used unstructured in-depth interviews and explored push motivation and pull motivation, he summarizes that push is socio-psychological motives that activate people to travel and pull is cultural motives that attract people to a particular destination. Traditionally, the push motivations have been thought useful for explaining the desire for travel while the pull motivations have been thought useful for explaining the actual destination choice (Crompton 1979). According to Ross and Iso-Ahola (1991), push motivation can be considered as psychological factor and pull motivation is physical factor. These two factors can influence travel decisions and leisure engagements. Jang and Cai (2002) point that push refers to the internal factors that drive individuals to travel and pull is concerned about the external factors that determine where, when, and how they travel. Kim (2008) addresses that the push factor can be considered as to travel by intangible factors such as escape, relax, exploration) and pull factor is to decide destinations by tangible factors such as attractions, facilities.
Motivation as one of the most important theories, it is recognized the key of the success of travel market. Iso-Ahola (1982) observes that people take part in various leisure and travel activities due to their own need. Tourist motivation is associated with individuals’ desires for achieving various purposes through travel (Kim and Beck 2009). Furthermore, studies of tourist motivation can assist destination managers to understand “how well the destination characteristics fit the needs of the travelers” (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2006) and design tourism products and services containing tourist needs.
Destination choice and selection
2.3.1 Influential factors to make tourism decision
Once the decision made to start tourism, the decision maker is in front of many questions, such like where to travel, whom to travel with and how to travel. In general, this is a process to collect, organize and assess the information (Liu, 2008).
22.214.171.124 Environmental perception
Environment perception refers to the tourism information rooted in mind, the old information and collected information. In general, this is the whole impression for the travelling. The potential tourists would be influenced by the environment perception. Though there might be some very significant tourist destinations, the tourists will not go the famous places that have no impression in their mind and perception. That is what we called environmental perception.
Environmental perception mainly include first, the popularity of tourist, which is the first impression of the tourism destination, the tourist will neglect other same destinations; second is tourism distance, the influential factor to the decision is the imaginary distance, not the real distance of the destination. The imaginary distance is made of unreal distance, and time cost, money cost, and energy.
126.96.36.199 Principle of maximum benefit
Principle of maximum benefit refers to the tourists will get the best enjoyment within certain budget during the tourism. Tourists will think it over before making a decision to travel. The main principles of maximum benefit are:
The minimum time on tourism, it means that the decision to travel will be made according to time spending on it, if the time spending is less than a level, then the decision will be made. Tourists are in favor of less time spending on the travelling.
Second is the popularity of tourism destination. The tourism destinations with higher popularity are more attractive, and tourists have gained more information though tourism. Meanwhile, the tourism destination, which has different culture, will arouse the interest for tourism.
Beside the two factors, there are other influential factors: best tourism destination, proper price and comfortable accommodation.
188.8.131.52 Tourism preference
Tourism preference refers to the human’s impression based on their characters over the reality. The tourism preference of tourists is influenced by human’s personal impression. The tourism preference is decided by personal impression of tourists. Regarding tourism preference, there are three factors to research, including age, occupation and education.
2.3.2 Content of tourism decision
Before starting the tourism, the tourists are supposed to make a lot of decisions; any of them will take personal factors and will into consideration besides external factors. For example, they will ask for some suggestions and think about the tourism route and travelling partner. These questions mainly include information channel, decision maker, travelling partners and tourism pattern.
184.108.40.206 Information channel
Information channel is the way to obtain and collect the information. With various channel, it is able to obtain the product information, or other users’ experience of using the products. As the society turns into a information-based ear, the information channel is various, which including networking channel, newspaper, books and magazine, television, internet and tourism institutions and so on.
220.127.116.11 Decision consultant
Decision consultant is someone who the tourist will ask for suggestions before starting tourism. Potential tourists will take suggestions into consideration, and then is more likely to ask for others’ consultation about where to go and how to go.
18.104.22.168 Tourism partners
People would like to find partners when go shopping, the same like tourists, many people like to start tourism with partners. According to experts of consumer behavior, they have made further analysis on the relationship between person and his partners in shopping. According to analysis, the shopping partners are intended to provide the suggestions based on their experience on the products and marketing, while the relationship between them is not intimate, such like neighbor, colleague and schoolmates. However, the suggestions might be focusing on the person’s characters and personal demand, while relationship between them is intimate, such like family members. Choices from tourism partners are not only a reliable resource, but also the suggestions and advices.
22.214.171.124 Ways of tourism
Ways of tourism is focusing on how to reach the destination. In general, there are two ways to travel, first is joining the travelling agency, and another is individual tourism. In this context, it will specify ways of tourism into several aspects, including joining travelling agency, individual tourism depending on maps, company’s tourism, community’s tourism, institution’s tourism and others.
2.4 The senior travel market
2.4.1 The seniors travel market in oversea
For overseas countries, as they started the tourism analysis in an early time, traced from 1980, the understanding towards tourism of the old people is very fruitful (Liu, 2008). It reflects in these aspects:
Research on tourism motivation
Regarding the research of tourism for the old people, it mainly focuses on tourism motivation and perception. The research has applied many methods, including questionnaire, on-spot survey. The method mainly focuses on the incentive and influential factors. Besides these methods, many other scientific measures have been applied. For example, a survey on the old people in Israel has been made by Aliza Fleischer in 2002. According to the survey, it found that the main influential factors are income and health, also the tourism time is also changing according to age. For the people aged from 55 to 65, they have rising free time and income, which is decisive to the increasing tourism times. For the people aged above 65, as their income and health going down, the tourism time is reducing (Aliza, 2002).
Jaesoo et al. (2003) have applied neural network of describing method to estimate the weight of influential factors towards the old people’s tourism. Meanwhile, it applied the non-neural network model to describe the relationship between tourists and tourism products. Anderson and Langmeyer(1982) analyzed the relationship between the old people and tourism. According to survey, tourists aged above 50 prefer tourism or visiting relatives to enjoy themselves. However, tourist aged below 50 prefer out-door activities or other entertainment facility to enjoy themselves
Goossens (2000) proposed the model called enjoyment incentive, which is also called model of intention, stimulation and reaction. The model includes the factor of pulling and pushing. Regarding the factor of pushing, it refers to environment, social status, relax and friendship; in respect of the factor of pulling, it refers to the situation of tourism. It emphasized the relationship between pulling and pushing, it considered that these two factors are two sides of a coin, which is closely tied in tourist’s mind. Crompton and Mckay (1997) pointed out that there are 6 incentives to attend the activities, including experiencing culture, curiosity, return, and balance, social activity with friends, official activity and family activity (Crompton and Mckay, 1997).
Research on tourism behavior of the old people
Regarding the old people, the research on detailed behavior of tourism is comparatively fewer, mainly focusing on the difference of behavior compared with others. Blazey (1992) has made a research on the relationship of tourism before and after retired, plus the usage of tourism information of the old people. Lewiser Aiken (2001) has pointed out that friendship is a networking, a mental support and a resource of information and entertainment for the old people. Meanwhile, he pointed out that the old people are more reliable to get information from prints, such like newspaper and other magazines. Romsa and Blenman (1989) compared the difference of tourists aged below 50 and above 60 in German; the result is that the tourism time is more flexible for the people aged above 60.
Research on tourism market of the old people
The research market of the old people played a part in the whole research, mainly focusing on how to attract the old people in tourism market. Charles D¼ŽSchewe (1985) indicated that the reason to target the old people in tourism market, as they have large potential and sustainable purchasing power. Francis et al. (1988) regarding the rising number of the old people in USA, it trying to find a way to attract them for the tourism industry, and an information channel to help them set up the vacation plan.
In general, regarding the tourism behavior of the old people, the features are: the main influential factors are income and health; also time, income, health age will influence the length and time of tourism; the tourism time will be reduce in accordance with the rising age; friendship is an important information resource for tourism; tourism time is flexible; purpose of tourism is for self-enjoyment.
2.4.2 The seniors travel market in China
Since 1999, our society became an aged society, the old people was the main part of society, which is also played an important part in the tourism industry. The research of tourism behavior for the old people started from 1990, in this case, the research has been only in the primary step so far. The core of research was the tourism industry of the old people with many results. However, the research of tourism behavior’s feature of the old people is very few (Liu, 2008).
Research on the old people’s tourism
Though the experts have involved in this issue for not a long time, there has some results. Wei (2001) thinks that the tourism incentive of the old people include health, culture, history and recollecting memory. The old people prefer cultural and historical cities, and would like to go travelling with families, friends or fellows. Liu (2005) thinks that the influential factors on the old people’s shopping include friend, culture, economy, mind and heart and commercial environment.
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According to a research made by Yu (2003), regarding the old people in Jiangxi, they have large demand on health recovery tourism due to the problems in health condition. Their information channel is mainly the traditional advertisement. Their way to go travelling is mainly following the travel agency. They prefer cultural and historical cities and spend less than average level. Wang (1999) argues that the old people are in a pure shopping stage which is very rational and have high requirement on quality of the products than others. Casual consumption and service consumption takes big proportion.
According to an analysis regarding the old people’s tourism industry in Taiyuan made by Zhang (2006), the travelling rate is higher for male than female, especially among the people aged from 60-65. The tourism purposes are mainly for sightseeing, self-enjoyment and recollecting memories; the shopping level are middle level, and the tourism time are seldom in peak season. A survey regarding the tourisms of the old people in Shanghai, the rate of tourism is high with moderate time. The purposes of tourism are mainly sightseeing and for health recovery which is very traditional. They spend money very carefully and will choose to follow the travel agency. They prefer transportation of bus and train. The distance of tourism mainly focuses on short or medium long. They prefer natural environment (Hou, Yin and Chen, 2005).
Also a survey regarding the old people in Fuzhou, the rate of tourism is divided into two extreme levels, high and low; the spending time of tourism is estimated to reach one week. The purposes of tourism are for sightseeing, health recovery or visiting relatives. They paid much attention on comfort, security and seldom ask for luxury accommodations. The transportation is mainly bus or train. They prefer travelling with partners and fewer will follow the travel agency. Security concern is the main obstacle for tourism (Tang, 2001).
According to an analysis regarding the old people of Chongqing in tourism industry, sports tourism has the same purposes with common tourism; the purposes are for health condition, entertainment and health recovery. The information channel is mainly from company and relatives. They prefer individual travelling. The old people held a prudential attitude towards shopping. Male is the majority to attend sports tourism. The rate of tourism is low for people aged above 65 (Yang, 2003).
The main research methods are questionnaire and interview. The research of the old people’s tourism behavior focuses on the incentive and preference, travelling method, transportation, information channel and spending cost. The features of the old people’s behavior are based on demography and influential factors of tourism behavior.
Research on tourism industry of the old people
In the domestic research, the feature of the old people’s tourism market, feasibility and expansion strategy plays a big part. According to Li (2005), regarding the old people, there are 6 features in tourism industry, such like enjoyment and prefer travelling at off-season. Li (2001) has made an analysis on the old people’s feasibility in tourism industry, which including factors of purchasing power, incentive, purpose, time and health condition. Xu and Chen (2001) proposed that it needs to focus on these factors to explore the tourism market of the old people, including research, products strategy, channel strategy and other promotions.
The research on the old people in tourism industry is mature, which has reached an agreement on features on the old people in tourism industry, feasibility, and development research and mature strategy. These results are significant to the following research. However, these researches are limited due to lack of on-spot examination (Liu, 2008).
In summary, features of the old people in tourism industry are as follows: the purposes are for self-enjoyment, sightseeing and health recovery; natural scenery and historical sites are attractive; travel time is seldom in peak season; health condition is better than before, and is able to attend some not-so-tough tourism; relatives and friends are the main information channel; joining travelling agency is the main way to tourism; prefer the tourism with family, friends and fellows; holding a prudential attitude towards travelling; taking bus and train as the main transportation with high requirements on travelling safety.
2.4.3 Researched the Nanjing seniors travel market
Consumers’ demand will trigger him to shopping and decide his shopping’s way. After entering into the old age, a person has changed psychically with rich experiences in life and consumption. Their consumption behavior is different with other ages, which is very specific and characteristic. This special consumption characteristic could be found in tourism motivation, time, manner and destination preference and other relative aspects. Research on behavior of the aged in tourism will contribute to better understanding to their demand and will help the expansion of tourism industry for the aged (Wei, no date supplied).
Wei (no date supplied) has researched the Nanjing seniors travel market and analysis several behaviors below:
126.96.36.199 Tourism motivation
For the aged, they have a very memorable time in the past. Though after years, they are willing to go back to the place where they have lived, or talk with the old friends to remind the old time.
Generally the aged have more free time, and most of their sons and daughters live without them. Their sons and daughters are busy at work, has little time to take care parents. What they can do is to visit parents’ home on weekend and have some small talk. However, for those who work in other cities, they cannot be with their parents. In this case, many old people feel lost and lonely. Therefore, tourism is able to satisfy their life and attract their attention.
For many old people, they only heard the names of some famous tourism destination, but due to various reasons, there is no chance to go there. Many old people want to go travelling while the health condition and economy allow, they want to feel and know the prospect of the outside world.
Health and entertainment
The life of old people is focusing on family and health from previous work. They choose to work out through tourism and entertainment, to go to the natures, for more fresh air, or to live in suburb place. Many obedient children will arrange family tourism; some will drive their car and bring parents together to go on a short tourism to peripheral area. In the tourism, the old people will have a lot of fun.
Due to health limitation, the old people are not willing to go travelling in winter or summer. They prefer spring or autumn, mainly in May, June, September, November (Wang, 2003). Because this period has proper temperature and humidity, it is good for travel, especially for the aged. Due to limited budget and other reasons, generally the old people are not willing to take a long trip, they prefer short or not-long trip. They want to spend a certain time, such like one week.
In general, the old people need stability and security in the tourism, and ask for relax, freedom, comfort, and leisure. Most old people will choose to follow travelling agency. For the old people¼Œtheir energy is weaker than other young tourists. Also, they want to enjoy their no matter vacation or rest, they want to fully satisfy their demand for fun, and do not want to pay much attention for accommodations. They prefer joining travel agency for the convenience.
According to survey, the purpose of tourism of the old people is mainly for the natural prospect. The tourism with purpose of health is more than pure tourism. It signified that due to the health condition, the old people have more demand in healthy tourism. The tourism destination is closely tied with the age of tourism. The elder tourists prefer cultural destination. For the old tourist, they prefer famous mountain scenery and places of interest, especially natural scenery and revolution scenic spot (Qiu, 2006). As people have different taste to their choice, the old people have their own choice in tourism. However, no matter where to go, they will take security and convenience into consideration. In general, they prefer some places with good environment, or famous cultural cities, religion places, and places with folk custom. Also they like the destinations with slow living rhythm, longstanding culture and high status in history.
The old tourists are mainly frugal and holding an economical attitude, requiring comfort and security. They ask little about luxury life. Their consumption awareness mainly is practical and economical. Though the consumption price is rising, too higher price will stop their consumption. Meanwhile, the fee is mostly paid by the old people’s children; and they do not want their children to pay a big bill. They prefer economical tourism. According to survey, there are 17% old people are in well-off economy condition with rising demand for tourism, however, another 70% old people who has requirement for tourism but they need the economical one (Liu, 2007).
As the old people get retired, they have plenty of time. Generally speaking, the old people are a group who spend longest time in tourism, with an average day of 10.3, which keeps rising (Hu, 2002). As the old people have more time to travel, they will spend more in entertainment and accommodation. Especially they have significant potential in shopping.
According to Valerie (1997), setting up and testing a hypothesis is an essential part of statistical inference. In order to create a test of a hypothesis, the starting point is to present a theory that is either believed to be true or is intended to be used as the basis for an argument. The aim of using a hypothesis here is to investigate the real perceived impact of the tourism industry in Huairou. Generally speaking, a hypothesis is a type of prediction which will not always turn out to be accurate, depending on the facts of the particular case. So, all of the predictions must be tested and proven (or disproved) using data analysis and/or further investigation.
The hypotheses are based on a review of the prior literature, and the hypotheses have two parts.
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