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Counselling Education for Social Problems in Schools

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Social Work
Wordcount: 2597 words Published: 14th Aug 2018

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Background Information

Aim of the Research

Literature Review


Ethical Issues

Data Dissemination





Case of drug abuse and early pregnancy in teenage girls has been on the rise. As a result; many girls are dropping out of school and young men indulging into crime due to addiction to drugs. You find that most of the time spend by young kids is spent in institutions of learning and therefore the need to invest a lot into this age bracket (9- 18 years). It is around this age that this children question things, seek to identify themselves with something or someone, there is also growth in reproductive health (E. Njagi, 2009). They are also very eager to try almost everything. A two to three hours session fortnightly would have less impact to their live. Instead, if it is incorporated into the curriculum; it would influence behaviors positively. The future of a republic is vested in this age. Hence, no one should ever neglect these children. Inclusion of guidance and counseling in curriculum would compel students towards embracing a culture of responsible behavior. This research proposal will therefore, seek to gather information so as to establish the way forward in advising making of policies in the education sector. This will be through action research

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Background Information

Survey reports presents millions of young men and women indulging into socially unaccepted activities. This even with having departments in the government working towards ensuring that, the society is “clean”. It is evident that we might not get rid of drugs and substance abuse, crime and teenage pregnancy. But most ultimately we can work towards reducing the numbers. Whether one is rich or poor, if they are not informed about some things; they might fall victims. Even though my research is based in Kiambu County, it would go a long way in advising the government on policy making in the education sector.

We can immunize the degree of social ills if only we take responsibility. And one is by ensuring that guidance and counseling is included in the curriculum of upper primary, secondary and first year of tertiary learning.

It is alarming that according to F. Chesang (2013, pg 126), Up to 30 to 40% in class seven, eight and form one have taken drugs at one time or another. Drugs abused are available next to every family’s door. They are available next to every family’s door. They are available everywhere anytime, in kiosks, bars, social gatherings and over the counter. They are available in every street corner, sold by the street people and other specialised gangs. So, as investors and entrepreneurs mushroom everywhere around the society. The government should also advance their scope of protecting the promising population from manipulation and enticement into venturing into drugs and other social ills. It important that we establish ways to ensure that, a population is healthy. A healthy population is a productive population.

Aim of the Research

The aim of this research is to establish problems encountered by students, and they have no possible way of overcoming them. This problems include peer pressure, domestic violence etc. which as a result if there is no mechanism to counter the force; they might end up in drugs, drop out of school, engage in pre marital sex, venture into crime, abortion etc

This research would also help unravel social ills that might have been neglected, as a result leading to confusion of identity among young population. With confusion; there is likelihood of engaging into socially unaccepted practices.

There has been less contact at the learning institutions; in this case, as far as guidance and counseling is concerned. As result, the growing and curious students end up picking on bad behaviors due to lack of information.

It will endeavor to help the government come up with structure and strategies to ensure total protection of the juvenile as enshrined in the de facto constitution of the republic of Kenya. It is protection from anything that might challenge their academic and skills development focus.

This research will also seek to establish the prevalence of the drugs and knowledge about them

Literature Review

Many scholars and scientists have been able to identify many types of social ills and researchers disseminating diverse findings and statistic about them. One challenge that come about is the fact that schools have guidance and counseling departments but they are rarely up to task. Character and knowledge might be gotten from homes (J. Drescher, 1973) but institutions have got more to do in building character of its students. We can be proud of schools but, according to Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2012) there was an increase in number of reported offences from 9,929 cases (2009) to 10,016 (2011), in Central Province which is actually the highest compared to other provinces. Citizen Television last year featured, young men in Dandora as young as 14 years, having guns and actually already being in criminal activities

The age mentioned in my research is very critical. It holds the future of a republic. They are adventurous and therefore, they need to be monitored. The curriculum that exists is okey for children development, but it would be appropriate to have formalized guidance and counseling at all levels of child development (J. Greata, 2006).

R. Maithya (2009) says that Families can have a powerful influence on shaping the attitudes, values and behaviour of children. During socialization, parents and family members direct young people‟s conduct along desired channels, and enforce conformity to social norms. In traditional African society, socialization began with the birth of a child and progressed in stages to old age, building on preceding socially recognized achievements. Again, there are several levels of socialization apart from family, it includes, peers and school is also very important in socialization. It is the reason why there is needs to have guidance and counseling incorporated in the curriculum. It will only help create a culture of responsible acts.

It is important to note that we cannot isolate kids from their peers hence, the need to come up with ways to help them relate effectively without negative influence, from the age of 8, students detach themselves from their parents in need of some sort of independence, their employ logic in reasoning and experience improved understanding of concepts. It is where friends matters most and hence, kids can be easily manipulated by morally corrupt peers (J. Greata, 2006). As soon as students join secondary school.

They are at a greater risk of indulging into drug abuse and making it an obsession. All this happens in quest of recognition and seeking to conform to codes of a certain group. It could be through coercion, protection from bullies or extension of a habit that started in the final years of primary education.

With all this challenges, it is important to note that the young population contributes 50% of the total population (G. Ondieki, Z. Ondieki, 2012). According to Ndirangu (2004), traditional values and family patterns, which had, for long given the society coherence, sense of belonging and identity have been assaulted and in some cases, discarded altogether in our shrinking 'global village'(cited in G. Ondieki and Z. Ondieki, 2014 pg 467) access to media content that would be violent or even explicit, exposure to western culture among other factors influence the lens they view the world with. The only placed to channel most resources is where this kids spend much of their time.

G. Ondieki and Z. Ondieki, 2012 also mention that, Kenya is committed to providing education for every child not just for human rights but also as a necessary element for social-economic development. Consequently drug use and abuse is therefore identified as one of the problems that hinder children from taking full advantage of educational opportunities. We can therefore understand the intensity at which lack of structured guidance and counseling affect the nation. It only by understands the fragility of teenagers that we can be able to embark on a lasting solution toward eradicating drug usage in Kenya; but by also putting up structures that will help save this generation.

Y. Ronen (2004, pg148) captures a very crucial point in the importance of allowing children to self actualize themselves in their identity, allowing them to explore. But again, it is the responsibility of the parents to ensure that they monitor their children while at home while the mandate shift while kids are in the institutions of learning.


While in the field, I will employ diverse action research approach method. This is because; my endeavor will be coming up with qualitative data. Since I will be dealing with students, staffs, government officials and school drop outs, I will ensure maximum use of focus group discussion, and interviews where necessary (especially when dealing with staffs and government officials).

After each day activity in the field, in the evening we will be working on data interpretation and analysis. So, as not to leave out some data that might be of importance to our findings

This will also allow for informal discussion on topic defined by the researcher

Ethical Issues

As researchers there are different people to whom I pay my allegiance to. In this case, my respondents/interviewees are the ones that should show loyalty and integrity. Since they are vulnerable, while working with focus groups, I will ensure that there is total immunity from their identity being known to the recipients of my finding. So,

  1. I will give name letters or numbers for the sake of their security.
  2. While doing research, I will allow them to bombard me with information so that I can have a lot to withdraw data from.

The names will neither be known by readers of my work or policy makers if they take up the findings.

Any data surrendered to me will remain private and confidential.

Data Dissemination

As soon as I complete my research; I will focus on attending to seminars involving education sector and the National Agency for the Campaign Against Drug Abuse (NACADA). I also plan to submit my work to a legitimate publisher to be printed as books. Policy briefs will further my dissemination of my findings; especially meeting with policy makers on topical occasions. I also plan to send my work to journal publishers so that scholars can access and use it for their scholarly work.

One Month Timetable For the Field Work









































@5sch per week i.e 8primary and 12 secondary.

Participant in schools and researchers




5 participant




Notebooks pen

One laptop




1@ 4,000per day

4@2,500per day









E. Njagi, 2009, Child Growth and Development II, Longhorn Publishers, Nairobi, Kenya

R. Chesang, 2013, Drug Abuse Among the Youths in Kenya, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, Volume 2, Issue 6

J. Drescher, 1973, Seven Things Children Need, Herald Press, Pennsylvania, USA

J. Greata, 2006, An Introduction to Music In Early Childhood Education, Delmar Cengage Learning

R. Njoroge, G. Bennaars, Social Education and Ethics, Transafrica Press, Nairobi, Kenya

Y. Ronen, 2004, Redefining the Child Rights to Identify, International Journal of Law Policy and the Family 18 , page 147-177

G. Ondieki, Z. Ondieki,2012, The Preconditioning Factors of Drug Usage and Abuse Among Secondary Adolescents in Kiamokma Division, Kisii County, Journals of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies(Scholarlink Research Institute journals)

R. Maithya, 2009 Drug Abuse in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Developing a programme for Prevention and Intervention (Project Submitted in November, 2009 for Socio-Education). University of South Africa

N. Pelt, 2009, Train Up a Child, The Stanborough Press Limited.


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