In order to determine the link between the effect of divorce on children and why some marriages end in divorce, five research studies have been analyzed. There is a certain connection between divorce and the personality and behavior of children. Similarly, divorce does not affect children. Some children are very understanding about the situation. While others have behavioral and psychological problems. This paper will discuss the different effects divorce has on children and adolescents.
Divorce and its effect on children
Divorce is the licit disunion between two spouses. Research shows that about 40%-50% of first espousements end in divorce. Likewise, 60% of second espousements withal end in divorce. Several factors that contribute to divorce are, income, religion, early gravidity, insecurity and emanating from a family where parents are divorced. One reaches the decision of divorce because of the duration one feels they had spent in the espousement, what they gain from the espousement and feelings of finding a better relationship. Over 1 million children suffer from the consequences of their parents being divorce. Children whose parents have divorced are liable to become victims of abuse. They suffer from demeanor and emotional difficulties, which can lead to drugs and insalubrious relationships. As mentioned earlier divorce introduces a substantial change into the life of a child regardless of age. Research has shown that in spite of of the situation the couple is in, divorce should not be an option. This literature review will explicate why the researches believe that couples should cohere, because of the effect it has on children.
Scott, Rhoades, Stanley, Allen and Markman (2013) goal of the study was to increment understanding of divorced individuals perspective on whether they’re premarital inculcation prepared them for espousement. Withal, how relationship edification could modify to better address couples needs. The participants included 88.2 % Caucasian, 5.9% Native Americans, 3.9% ebony, 2.0% Asians, and 15.7% Hispanics (cite here). The sample included 31 women and 21 men. 18 men and 18 women had been espoused to each other; 16 of the other former spouse were unable to be assessed. The participants were either assigned to received PREP (Obviation and Relationship Enhancement Program) through the religious organization, at a university, or naturally occurring. Participants were asked to betoken whether or not each item on the list was a major reason that ended their divorce, (“yes” or no”). The items on the list included lack of commitment, infidelity economic hardship, espousing too adolescent, religious differences and conflict and arguing. The result of the study shows that that most often reasoning’s for divorce was lack of commitment (75.0 %), infidelity (59.6%), and an exorbitant amount of conflict and arguing (57.7%), followed by espousing too adolescent (45.1%), financial quandaries (36.7%), substance abuse (34.6%), and domestic violence (23.5%). All other quandaries were less then 20 percent.
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The researches postulated that pre-martial inculcation could preserve ones espousement. If this was the case those cerebrating of getting espoused should receive martial inculcation, then follow up with them to visually perceive if it made a difference. It is withal infeasible to do research on what the causes of divorce were without kenning the participants background information included whether or not their parents had divorce. It additionally shows that the researchers endeavored to contact 114 participants but only 52 responded. With such a diminutive size how can one accurately find findings that fortifies why couples divorce.
Weaver and Schofield (2014) analyzed children’s longitudinal adjustment to their parents divorce. This is in terms of internalizing and externalizing comportment quandaries rated by edifiers and mothers. Participants were the families in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Ages in the study ranged from 5 to 15 years. Children’s experience of a parents’ divorce was resolute from information accumulated from mothers at multiple time points. Assessments were conducted when children were between the ages of 1 through 15 years old. Withal from kindergarten through seventh grade. The results of the research shows that children from divorced families had more internalizing/externalizing quandaries at grade 6 reported by edifiers. More internalizing/externalizing quandaries at age 15 reported by mothers. Additionally, the results shows that divorce did not lead to a more expeditious increase comportment quandaries. Instead children from divorced families did increment in their rank order of deportment quandaries.
The primary impuissance of this study was the range of the ages. Children experience behavioral quandary past the age of 15. They experience behavioral quandary into adulthood, when they have withal commenced their families. Another impuissance of the study was not establishing which gender whether male or female had more internalizing and externalizing deportment quandaries. The study should have additionally included ways the mothers and edifiers were handing the behavioral quandaries and what was done to keep the deportment under control.
Wallerstein and Julia (2013) did a study a on mothers and their children after divorce. The researchers studied 60 families, including both parents and their 131 children in northern California. This was a first espousement for 93% of the women and 90% of the men. The mother’s average age was 34 years and 37 for the average age of the fathers. The parents were well-edified, middle class largely white urban group. The children ranged in age from 3-18 years. There were three distinct groups predicated on continuity in maternal parenting. Which included continuity in good parenting, downturn in parenting, and collapse in maternal parenting. The results of this study shows that after divorce many children felt overlooked and lost their connection with their parents. Some of the children even went as far as taking care of their mother finically and additionally taken care of their mother’s personal care. Those who remarried children had a father figure. While those who decided to stay single kept their children as the number one priority.
One of the downfall in this study was the utilization of only White participants. The researches should have withal done their research on other race. In doing so it would have altered the results. Which in reciprocation would have expound why certain children have behavioral quandaries, and these findings would have better explicate the deportment quandaries. The researcher should have included how the children and mothers demeanor change after the mother remarrying.
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Disney, Weinstein, and Oltmans (2012) conducted a study to demonstration how personality disorders are cognate to divorce frequency. The study included 1,241 female and male participants. Women and made up 54% of the participants. Participants were asked about their marital history. A sample question included was how many times one has been divorce. The researchers additionally quantified personality. The symptoms of personality were quantified from three sources: the participants, interviewer, and an informer culled by the participants. The DSM-IV was utilized during the interview. The participants were rated on a 4-point scale; with 0 representing no personality disorder was present. The results of the study were that paranoid and Histrionic PD symptoms incremented with divorce rates.
In the study the research should have shown the different personality disorders of those who have divorced more then two times to those who have only divorced once. These findings denote that those who are divorced appear to have an incrementation of paranoid and histrionic PD symptoms. Which is generalized about all people that are divorced. The researcher should have made a differentiation between the male and female, and which gender typically shows more denotements of personality disorders. Moreover, the researcher should have included the personality disorders of children whose parents have divorced more then once.
Whitton, Rhoades, Stanley, and Markman (2008) conducted a study on the effects of those who parents have divorced on commitment and confidence. The study included 265 couples. The sample withal included Whites, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic or Latinos and multicultural. Participants were 17 to 46 years old; they consummated an assessment afore getting relationship edification and were paid $40. A 14-item Dedication scale was acclimated to quantify relationship commitment. A 10- item Confidence scale was utilize to quantify relationship confidence. The findings designate that women whose parents had divorced showed lower relationship commitment and less confidence in their espousement then those from nondivorced families.
The imperfection in this study was the researcher not quantifying the martial commitment and confidence in men. Or whether or not emanating from a family where their parents has divorced affect their commitment or confidence level. Additionally, when those couples are receiving relationship edification is it more directed to women or men? The researcher should had withal include expound how the relationship edification was mapped out. Betokening was there a separate section categorically for the women and men, and one for both. The researchers should have withal included wheatear the age of the women when her parent’s divorce had an effect on her confidence and commitment in her espousement.
Summary and Conclusion
Divorce plays and consequential factor in children and the adults that are taking part. In the studies more than one moiety of all participants cited infidelity as a major reason for divorce, and was often the “final straw.” Divorce has an astronomically immense influence on the outcome of children and their postures towards espousement. A child that derives from a divorce family is most liable to have behavioral quandaries. Every couple orchestrating on getting espoused should receive pre-martial inculcation, so they can have things to be cognizant of while espoused. Albeit, the study shows that those whose parents have divorce are most liable to divorce, this issue may not only derive from that. Instead it may derive from lack of commitment, espousing at an early age, conflict and arguing an exorbitant amount of could additionally cause people to culminate in divorce. Additionally, divorce can transmute a mother’s posture towards a child, where they longer feel a connection due to the mother endeavoring to pick herself back up.
- Disney, Krystle L., Yana Weinstein, and Thomas F. Oltmanns. “Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency.” Journal of Family Psychology 26.6 (2012): 959-65.
- Scott, Shelby B., Galena K. Rhoades, Scott M. Stanley, Elizabeth S. Allen, and Howard J. Markman. “Reasons for Divorce and Recollections of Premarital Intervention: Implications for Improving Relationship Education.” Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice 2.2 (2013): 131-45.
- Votruba, Ashley M., Sanford L. Braver, Ira Mark Ellman, and William V. Fabricius. “Moral Intuitions about Fault, Parenting, and Child Custody after Divorce.” Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 20.3 (2014): 251-62.
- Wallerstein, Judith, Julia Lewis, and Sherrin Packer Rosenthal. “Mothers and Their Children after Divorce: Report from a 25-year Longitudinal Study.” Psychoanalytic Psychology 30.2 (2013): 167-84.
- Whitton, Sarah W., Galena K. Rhoades, Scott M. Stanley, and Howard J. Markman. “Effects of Parental Divorce on Marital Commitment and Confidence.” Journal of Family Psychology 22.5 (2008): 789-93.
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