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The Factors Influencing The Built Environment

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Construction
Wordcount: 3815 words Published: 25th Apr 2017

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The proposal assumes the role of a developer presenting to the client. This will help the client to understand the factors influencing the Built Environment (Moxon Street) site. The site would be developed for a ‘Student Accommodation’. Though details of the site are not given in the report but an overview of all the factors that would affect the site development, the techniques used, the precautions ought to be taken, etc. It is a general description of how a site will be developed keeping in mind the health, safety & welfare and the environmental implications from the development of the site.

Section 3

In a built environment it is necessary for the Designer to reduce the health risks that occur from the construction work and also to provide for the safety and welfare to the workers.

So Health, Safety and Welfare play an important in the design process. It can be further divided into stages.

The Design process which is a benchmark to identify the health risks that arises from the design as well as eliminate the hazardous to a reasonable extent. An onsite register can also be maintained in this regard to show that we have to consider the onsite risks. It would be mandatory for the chemicals contained in the product to be registered under REACH.

For Health Hazard the services of a CDM coordinator will be hired and certain components would be assembled off site which would reduce the health hazard on site.

The project risk review gateways will be linked to RIBA at the plan of works stages. There is a need for systematic risk assessment and solution will be assessed on the basis of risk control hierarchy.

There would be a Red-Amber-Green list which can help the designer to identify and also to negate the hazards and to control risks as far as possible.

The Development will have a negative impact on the environment. The Council stipulates that necessary Environment Impact Assessment and Environmental Performance Statement should be part of the development plans. The design should have provisions for natural sunlight, ventilation of air, energy consumption, etc. This should be able to reduce air and noise pollution. This will help the developer to create goodwill for himself as well. There will be ultra low flush toilet which would reduce the use of water.

There are certain Risks Assessments which are to be carried out for the health and safety of the employees on site.

They would be in respect of-

As per the ‘Control of Substance hazardous to health’ regulation precaution would be taken by a systematic approach. The services of an Agency would be hired for workplace monitoring for harmful dust, vapours, fumes and gases. This would be done as per the Workplace Exposure Limits given by E40.

European Union Noise at work regulation would also be considered as per the guidelines-

The 1st and 2nd Action Levels are 80dB(A) and 85dB(A) respectively. 1st and 2nd Peak Action Levels of 135dB(C) and 137dB(C) Peak respectively. A Maximum Exposure Level Limit of 87dB(A) and 140dB(C) Peak at the ear will be introduced which includes any hearing protection.

There would be due consideration given to Fire Risk assessment of Catering Extract Systems with regards to the guidelines-

BSRIA – Fire Risk Assessment – Catering Extract Ventilation

Regulatory Reform Fire Safety Order (RRFSO) 2005

HVCA DW172 Specification for Kitchen Ventilation Systems.

Indoor Air Quality Sick Building Syndrome would be identified as this will affect the health of the occupants of the building. This complains could arise from a particular room or floor but could have a lasting impact on all the occupants.

Odour Threshold analysis would also be conducted. This is relating to the strange smell i.e., presence of volatile organic compounds in the building that could affect the health to the occupants. The majority of these volatile organic compounds are present in very low concentrations i.e. 0.1-1ppb (parts per billion).

Legionella risk Assessments and Asbestos Identification Surveys would be conducted as well. This would be in accordance with the Approved Code of Practice and Guidance L8, Legionnaires ‘ disease


There would be a Multi discipline approach taken in the risk management in the design process. This will be fruitful because of the vast experience of the Architect, Consultant, Engineer; etc would be integrated right from the design process.

Design Implication

This all will help us to have a safe and a sound design which would eliminate the hazards to the health and safety of the workers as well as of the occupants. This will also help us to reduce the environmental impact of the built environment.

Primary Services Utilities

It is necessary to accommodate these services in the early stages of the design process.

There should be early checking of availability of these services

Early decision on intended location of such services on the site

This will ensure that there is a proper plan in place and will also help us to avoid complications in the future.

Provisions should be made for-





Sewage services

If there are issues with the availability of any of these services than a decision can be taken at the early stages of the design process.

The Location of these services would be depended as per the acceptable framework provided by RIBA Plan of Work 2007. This will assist the design team to plan, coordinate and also to have a definite approach to the various services.

Entry to the building would be given from all the four sides with the main entrance from the front of the building.

There can also be distribution and scaling down of different services done by the Designers to meet the needs of our development.

The provisions for accessibility and the maintenance of these services would be done at the early stages of the design process. We would hire competent staff which would look after the maintenance of these services with an access given to them on each floor for easy maintenance and repair.

The environmental implications of these services would be-

Create a sustainable environment for the communities

Protect public health by giving safe drinking water, effective sanitation services, etc

Safely recycling waste

Comply fully with all the environmental legislation

These above precautions and approaches will help us to achieve effective management of services with regular maintenance and also providing with a safe environment for the community.

The Water extraction will be done by the he liquid ring vacuum pump contains a twin start helical rotor mounted eccentrically in a cylindrical pump casing and is designed to pump liquids or combinations of liquid, air and fine solids through long suction lines, generating suction lifts to up to 8.5m.

For the waste Disposal there will be a Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP) in line with the DTI Code of Practice and associated good practice guidance. On completion the new building should be subject to Post Occupancy evaluation.

Global Warning

The building designs will be based on the UKCIP ‘medium high emission scenario’ rather than that which is based on historical data. UKCIP predicted that the average temperature in UK will rise by 3.5 degree by 2080, therefore a mixed mode ventilation stems incorporating the passive and mechanical ventilation coupled with high thermal mass and complete solar shading are likely to cope with the effects of the climate change. Mayor of London commissioned a report stating that London is the most susceptible to flooding than any other urban area in the UK. The site is not in the Zone 3 established by the Westminster Council that specifies areas the areas affected during floods.

In order to minimise the energy demand of the building we must increase the efficiency in the building envelope, using high efficiency windows, insulation in walls, ceilings and floors will be used. Passive solar building design could also be used. This will minimise energy demand.

In order to control emission to water point of water treatment would be used. This improves the quality of water and also reduces the amount of water in circulation. Non-sewage would be used on site which would minimize demand on the local authority.

There would be a good thermal insulation system in place this would minimise the emission to air. The ex filtration of warm air would result for 30% of the heat loss through a buildings envelope. A air leakage test would be carried out as well.

Renewable Energy Issues

Technical- The site will have a-

Solar energy technology

Heat pumps

Energy from waste


This will help to reduce the impact on the environment.

Economic- Initially the cost of the machines would be higher than the conventional equipments but over a period of time there would be a lot of savings due to a decrease in the bills.

Social- This will have a positive impact on the occupants and the community. The carbon and the fuel emission would be quiet low. This would sub dued the hazards caused to the health and safety of the people.

Range of Sustainable construction technique includes-





Landfill gas


Waste to Energy

84 KW wind generator

Double exterior walls with foam insulation

Radiant slab heat for excess energy storage

Section 4

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 describes the risks associated with the construction industry and narrates the specific provision which ought to be taken to negate the danger.

The CDM regulation 2007 encourages co ordination and co-operation among the various parties of the project. It works towards making health and safety an integral part of designing and construction. It recognises the hazards in the planning and construction stage of the project and helps to take corrective steps.

The construction health, safety and welfare regulation 1996 are a set of rules to protect the health and safety of the people engaged on the site and the people who may be affected by the work. It is a leaflet which describes the regulation and precautions to be taken by the people on the site.

The main focus of the Management of the Health and safety at works regulation 1999 is to reduce the damage on the site and to create a action plan for the emergencies. There is a need to comply with the specific regulation of the industry.

Works at Heights Regulations 2005 is concerned with the injury that could occur to a employee as a result of a fall. It covers both the internal and the external areas of the building. There is present no height limit. It places duties on the persons who control the work on the site to take necessary care and precaution.

Method Statement

Site Foundation

The site has a mixed structure type up to 30 metres. So mechanical handling is essential. There should be no public access until the construction work is complete. Adequate security is to be provided to see there is no theft or damage to the site. The site will be developed in two phases.

Loading/Unloading of materials

As the project is conducted in two phases here is sufficient space at the corner of the site for the loading and unloading of materials. This would also give rise to some risks but it would be handled by the experienced staff that operates the machines.


Non-maintenance of machine will pose a great threat to the workers engaged in site development. So a good maintenance schedule is needed to reduce the need of replacement. All machines should have the current safety inspection certificate and the person operating it should also be certified.

Electrical Equipment

There is a need to keep a check on the conditions of the equipments.

Weather Condition

When there are unsafe a situation arising from the weather conditions the authority is given to the site foreman to take the precaution which is deemed necessary.

Individual Safety Clothing

Individual safety clothing will be provided on site and it is necessary to wear them at all times.

Safety Systems of Work

It is divided into three parts

It analyses the task at hand

Hazards caused to health, safety and welfare

Precautions to be taken to eliminate the hazards

It is an extension of the Risk assessments and the method statement

All this should take place from the planning stage, the design and also on the construction stage.

(Example included in the appendix)

Site Induction and Training

It is the legal responsibility of the employer to provide induction and training relating to the hazards and risk associated to the health and safety of the employees and the contractors.

It includes-

The scope of work

Amenities on the site such as toilet, water, etc

Safety rules in place

Safety procedures for high risk construction activity

PPE required to be worn

First aid arrangements on the site

Good Site management

It is necessary to hire Project Manager for a good site management. They coordinate all design and construction process. They assist the site from the development stage to the actual completion of the site. As the size of the project is reasonable there is a need to hire a Project Manager.

Health and Safety Signage

site safety signconstruction multi sign 1

Personal Protective Equipment

Safety footwear

Hard hats

High visibility waist coats


Life jackets

Safety harness

Insulated clothing for adverse climatic condition



Checklists is required for the safety of the employees on site

It is necessary for-;


Powered Access equipments

Roof Work




Hazardous substance

Noise, etc.

Roles and Responsibility of the various parties under CDM 2007


Competence of the contractors

Suitable arrangements for the welfare facilities

Provide pre construction information to the designers and contractors

Planning Supervisor

Assist the client

Notify HSE

Co ordinate health and safety in regards to design

Ensure good communication on the site

Prepare and update health and safety file


Reduce risk during design

To check whether the CDM co coordinator is been appointed

Make client aware of his duty


Prepare and develop a written plan

Site rules

Ensure suitable welfare facilities are provided

Ensure proper induction and training is provided to the workers


Manage and monitor own work and also of his workers

Train own employees

Provide them information

Comply with the requirements of the part 4 of the regulations


Report risks

Check competence

Co-operate with each other

Health and safety Officer

Check that health and safety arrangements are made

Report any risks

Impose fine if there are inadequate arrangements

Supply Chain

The materials are available in the free market however there are some materials which would be procured locally and some internationally through Wholesale Agency for Environmental friendly materials.

International Procurement

Reflective coatings and non structures

Phase change material

High efficiency insulation system

Solar heaters

Local Procurement




Pre cast structures


Electrical Fittings



Wood for Flooring, etc.

The access of the truck and the delivery of the material would be from the front entrance of the site with a possible provision at the back end of the site for the exit.

A temporary warehouse would be constructed at the corner of the site depending on the construction phase. The handling of the material would be done by the employees who are trained beforehand.

The eight rules of handling are included in the appendix

Sustainability of resources

Recycling facilities would be provided for paper and glass and with textile and plastics. Waste minimisation techniques will also be used to reduce waste and it will bifurcate into clean rubble, timber, general chemical waste, etc.

Recycled and Eco friendly materials list is provided in the appendix

Embodied energy issues

We will try to include more renewable materials in the project which has lower embodied energy than non renewable materials.


Concrete produces 1 tonne of carbon dioxide for every tonne manufactured.

Waste treatment and management techniques are important for bio degradability of materials at the end of their useful life.

The techniques used are-

Combustion or gasification

Anaerobic digestion

Mechanical treatment

Biological treatment

Modern Method of Construction

It includes ready- made walls, floor and roof which are transported and then assembled on the site. They make construction faster. It also includes modular Kitchen, Bathroom, Furniture, etc which are factory fitted and help in reduction of project duration and also on site environmental hazards. The MMC houses are also energy efficient. Because only assembling is done on the site there are fewer accidents and produces less noise and dust. It also has a less impact on the local residents.


(The mentioned sites were accessed on 21st and 22nd of December 2009)

Building a Better Quality of Life: a strategy for sustainable construction. DETR (2000)

Sustainable Development Action Plan for Education and Skills. Department for Education and Skills (2003).

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). US Green Building Council (2001).

Environmental Performance Indicators for Sustainable Construction – The Movement for Innovation (M4I)

Sustainable Construction. Higher Education Partnership for Sustainability (HEPS). (2002)

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) – Building Research Establishment (2002).

















































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