Malaysia is a rainy season country especially from November to March it will have heavy rainfall during this period. Unfortunately our capital Kuala Lumpur (KL) is located at the valley positions which frequently happen flooding problem since according to (Sin Chew Daily 2011) started from 31 December 1970 years three quarter of the city were flooded during rainy season. The flooding problem will cause the develop of our country. The impact involved of damages the lives of human, effect the economic use of the land such as the cost of land will be low because none of the owner would like have the land which frequently faced flood problem and also the structural damage such as the maintenance cost or the repair cost. Take an example according to (Datuk IR Hj) about 445 hectares of land in the city were inundated to various depths of up to 2 meter and the cost of damage was estimated to be region of RM 36 million, it was a huge amount if the problem continue for feature. Therefore Malaysia government have come out with a solution which is invested in a program call smart tunnel project or Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel project.
According to (Siao 2003) The smart tunnel project are located nearby the confluence point of Sg.Ampang river and Sg Klang river in the north and ends at the lake at Desa Water Park .The total tunnel length is 9.7 km with a bore diameter of 13.26m.
The usage of smart tunnel is to solve the problem floods in Kuala Lumpur and also reduce traffic jam along Jalan Sungai Besi and low yew at Pudu during rush hour; therefore there are two components of this tunnel, the StormWater tunnel and motorway tunnel. It is the longest multi-purpose tunnel in the world.
The Stormwater management and road tunnel is located at the eastern side of Kuala Lumpur in a north east-south west direction. Due to the geographical environment of Kuala Lumpur are located at the valley it will stagnant water more easily and our rivers today do not have the capacity to discharge the water to another place cause Kuala Lumpur suffered serious damages during the flash flood from years 1970 until now.
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Accroding to(Smart project 2012) That may the reason the government come out with a solution that is smart tunnel project, the idea of smart tunnel is to decrease the flooding problem that Kuala Lumpur is face up to each time of heavily rain by divert the water entering from the critical location which is Sg.Klang,Sg.Ampang and Sg.Gombak using a holding basin ,storage reservoir and the bypass tunnel and reduce the traffic jam during rush hours in Kuala Lumpur .(Stormwater management and road tunnel project .viewed on 19 June 2012.
The Smart Tunnel project was initiated by the former Prime Minister Tun Dr. Mahatir Mohammad under the Malaysian development. This project is included of cooperation of local authorities, private sectors, and some international engineer consultant. For the government department involved in this project are the department of irrigation and drainage Malaysia and Malaysian Highway Authority. For the private sectors are MMC Berhad and GAMUDA Berhad .
The site of Smart tunnel ground condition which consisting overburden (silts&sand,alluvial tin deposits, mine tailings,slump zones over the karstic rockhead) and the limestone which are deep fissured erratic Rockhead with relief of >30m . Due to the complex ground condition the contractor of smart tunnel project have decide to use tunnel boring machine as tunnelling excavation method and few part by using cut and fill .
1.2 Problem statement and Research question
The smart tunnel is consisting of two components 9.7 km route and 11.83 internal diameter was in part sized to provide a motorway and storm water tunnel, there was a problem from the different level of motorway due to when flood event whether the component of the road provide sufficient strength to support water load to transmit water throughout the tunnel. (Robert Wilson 06)
The another problem of this study is smart tunnel located in Kuala Lumpur which consists of large amount of lime stone know as highly erratic karstic features. (siow 2006) because of the formation there are few difficulty problem during the excavation process there are included the earth retaining system for the shaft excavation , the selection of the suitable tunnel boring machine (TBM) for SMART project, the ground water inside the ground.
The smart tunnel project completed at end of January 2007 and started with the operation mode of storm water tunnel but however the Malaysia government has allocated a huge amount of money for flood control project drainage system in smart tunnel project but the smart tunnel is unable to curb flood in Kuala Lumpur flood hit after a few days of downpour 40 years ago but today, the nightmare return after an hour of heavy rain .Is it because the river getting slimmer. (Sin Chew Daily 2011). According to(The Star 2012) There are few selected flooding area even the smart tunnel are operating but it did not solve the flooding problem in those area like KampungBaru,Ampang, Jalan Bangsar,Ampang Jaya, Jalan Pinang and Jalan Sultan ismail.
How the excavation method is carried out?
What is the major excavation problems occurred?
How the operation mode is functions?
What the selection characteristics have to be considered for tunnel boring machine?
To study the excavation methods of smart tunnel
To analyse the major problem during excavation
To ascertain the mode of operation stage for smart tunnel
To compare the selected tunnel boring machine with alternative (TBM)
1.4 Scopes of study
The scopes of study are as follow:
Due to the smart tunnel location the study for this topic will be conducted in the area of Kuala Lumpur, and the area will be focus on those area involved flood problem there are Kampung Baru, Ampang, Jalan Bangsar, Ampang Jaya, Jalan Pinang and Jalan Sultan Ismail. Furthermore to study the excavation method that only applied in the construction of smart tunnel and also the ground soil condition of the smart tunnel. After that will be study on the selection characteristic tunnel boring machine, lastly is the 3 mode of operation of smart tunnel
1.5 Research Methodology
This section usually is to presents an overview of the process and method to use in the study of the topic and the aim of this study is to collect information such as what is the excavation selected method of smart tunnel, during the excavation what are the major problem occurred, how the operation mode is functioned and the consideration of characterise during selection of tunnel boring machine.
1.5.2 Primary data source
– Questionnaire and Interview
The research that I am conducting is a plain research, which intends to find out the information of why the flooding problem is still occurring and the consideration while selecting the construction method. I am going to collect primary data through survey method by using both questionnaires and interviews. The reason for combining both questionnaire and interview methods is to collect both quantitative and qualitative information from respondents. Besides, collecting data through the survey method is quicker and economic. .By utilizing the questionnaires and interview in this research I able to comprise both the quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The purpose of the interviews is to obtain an insight into the respondents. This methodology will enable me to acquire more complete picture of respondents understanding of the smart tunnel and processes by them to produce answers. The main idea is let the respondents to make judgments based on the question. Paper and pen will be prepared for those respondents which will be held separately at different times. For questionnaires, I will be targeting 100 respondents, which consists of the public field member from age 20-60.
Second question from the quantitative paradigm statistically compares data, this technique will be show the scores in the results and enable me to answer the question from the score.
1.5.3 Secondary data source
The literature review is one of the important processes in order to get more understanding what the construction method was selected. All the review can be collected from the relevant article, newspaper, internet and the references book. Through the review it can develop more understanding on the selected construction method of smart tunnel. The way to collect article and newspaper can be from internet and the references book can be found out a t the college library.
1.7 Outline Chapter
Chapter 1 Introduction
This chapter is the introduction to explain the reason to develop the smart tunnel project. In this chapter, it will look penetrate deeply to the selected excavation method of smart tunnel, the comparison between selected tunnel boring machine (TBM) with alternative (TBM) and also the mode of operation for Smart Tunnel in order to achieve the aim and the objective of the topic and by suggest of the research methodology to gather the relevant information.
Chapter 2 Literature review
For this chapter are going to collect the important relevant information from the article, newspaper, data from internet and also reference book from college library. The following information will be list down for understanding for this topic in order to achieve the objective of this topic.
This Chapter will be mark down the information as the following:
The selected excavation method for smart tunnel.
The major problem and the solution during the excavation.
The three mode of operation of smart tunnel.
The selected tunnel boring machine and alternative tunnel boring machine.
Chapter 3 Research Methodology
For this chapter it will explain the process of the research, which means the way of the researcher to find out more information and to collect the required data for data analysis purpose. For my method I will go to use interview and questionnaire to achieve my objective.
Chapter 4 Data Analysis
For this chapter, all the data gathered from the interview and questionnaire will then be analysed after conduct the interview and questionnaires to the relevant manager and the 100 responder from the public field to collected primary data. It will be presented in table and histogram form in order to make a conclusion for this topic.
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendation
For this chapter it will base on the result obtained and write out the conclusion. Furthermore, base on the 4 chapter that was conducted out to write out the final summary for what have been studied is written.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
This chapter will present the general information about the excavation method of smart tunnel, the major excavation problem occurred in smart tunnel, the operation mode of the smart tunnel and the characterise between selected tunnel boring machine (TNB) and alternative TNB.
Definition of excavation work
Excavation consider is one of a the greatest hazardous and complex construction operations (Western Australia, 2005), excavation can divided to many type they are include of trench, deep foundation ,tunnel , shaft and also open excavation. The excavations describe as by removing the earth soil and formed a hollow or cavity earth surface.
2.2.1 The excavation method of smart tunnel
The selection of excavation method of smart tunnel have consider and study by the project promoter MMC-GAMUDA joint venture and their consultants SSP in assocition with Mott MacDonald(SSP/MM) and come out with the result. According to Keizrul(2004) the choice of tunnel excavation method to have three choice there are i.e. ‘cut&cover’,’NATM’ and ‘TBM’ . He point out that the ‘cut &cover’ method will take long time during the contraction process either selected method from ‘bottom up’ or ‘top down’ .On the other hand this method will be suitable for uncertain soil through the tunnelling. Furthermore according to sivalingam(2006) the meaning of cut and cover method for the smart tunnel are ‘L’formed walls on high rock head part and secant pile walls keyed into the rock and tieback with anchors on part where the rock head drops. The rock was to be excavated by drilling and blasting as in a quarry, the walls supported by rock bolts and concrete. The same method was selected for the excavation of the shafts, egress ingress road trenches and of the junction boxes.
Furthermore for ‘NATM’ namely as ‘New Austrian tunnelling’ .He have point out this method are suitable for the structure of soil to tunnel is completely understood. It will be not suitable to select this method when founded the ground condition are belong to non homogeneous material or cavity filled rock, the ‘drill and blast’.
For the last excavation method point out by the Keizrul (2004) are ‘TBM’ namely as ‘Tunnel Boring Machine’ .The article show that the general type of TBM to pick to have three main function i.e. the open face machine for rock boring, the earth pressure balance (EPB) machine generally used for boring loose soil and the misxshield TBM for media comprising hard material interfaced with loose soil. Furthermore according to sivalingam(2006)
The major excavation problem
According to (Malcolm Puller, 1996) the common excavation problem will be occurred on site is the excessive deformation of the soil, soil support structure, and inadequate groundwater leaving out and not enough durability and strength of the soil support structure. Those are the major problem maybe occurred during the excavation stage.
2.3.1 The major excavation problem have occurred in smart tunnel
2.4. Operation mode of the smart tunnel
The smart tunnel consisting 3 type of the operation mode, the operation mode will be based on the flood condition at the upstream of Klang River and Ampang River. (Mohd saleh santhiman& Looi Hong Weei,2006,)
Figure_____Tunnel operation mode
Figure_____Cross section of the motorway tunnel
2.4.1 Mode 1
In this mode of condition where the motorway of tunnel are allow for the driver to access ,where there are no storm or low rainfall, does not have any flood water will be diverted into the (SMART) system
2.4.2 Mode 2
In this mode of condition where the motorway of tunnel are still allow for the driver to access and the (SMART) system will be activated, the stormwater from moderate rainfall is diverted into the bypass tunnel at the invert level(lowers segment)of the motorway tunnel.
2.4.3 Mode 3
In this mode of condition where the motorway of tunnel will be closed to traffic. The whole tunnel will be used to mitigate the stormwater.Once the flood water level have reach a limit , in a sufficient time will be evacuate all passenger vehicles and automated water gates are activated to occupy the flood water. The anticipated duration of switching to from mode 2 to mode 3 is estimated to be about one hour. After the flood recede, the targeted duration for tunnel reopening is minimum of two days to enable for flood dewatering and cleaning.
2.5 Tunnel Boring Machine
Now a days the tunnel boring machine are become popular in the construction industry while the project involved of the tunnelling process, compare with the traditional excavation method by using the tunnel boring machine the excavation process become safer, and economic for creating underground space. There is different type of the machines an example for hard ground tunnelling will be use slurry machine and rock machine, for soft ground tunnelling will be use earth pressure balance machine. (IMIA Conference Istanbul, 2009)
The main function of the tunnel boring machine is to excavate tunnel with the machine and across and remove the soil component there are include variety and soil and hard rock.
2.5.1 The characterise between selected tunnel boring machine (TNB) and alternative TBM
184.108.40.206According to the (MMC-GAMUDA JV, 2009) following is the based criteria for the smart tunnel:
1)The delivery time of smart tunnel must be short ,not more than one year time in order to prevent the delay of the contract program
1)The tunnel boring machine should able to process excavation under the following situation:
2) Due to the ground condition are complex the smart tunnel must be design and build to survive along the drive.
2) -The tunnel consist 70% of Limestone formation namely as marble.
-The North end consist 25% of full face mine tailings
-5% of the tunnel in Kenny Hill formation
3)” Large, 12,25m excavation diameter”
3)”High groundwater table close to surface”
4) )”Able to negotiate tight R=200m curves; tunnel design R=250m curves”
4) Extremely high permeability at open karsic solution channels
5) ” Low overburden: Minimum0.9D, Maximum 1.5D”
5) Below of rockhead the slump zone are in the overburden
6) The tunnel should affect the environment due to the tunnel is surround the city.
6) Due to the cyclical water table changes or during earthquakes the tunnel naturally occurring sinkholes
7)”Restricted access to alignment at 2/3d of the cases for ground treatment”
7)” Highly variable, pinnacle rockhead causing frequent mixed face condition”
220.127.116.11 (TBM) Selection technical comparison points
The following table are refer to (MMC-GAMUDA JV, 2009)
Due to the higher mark and the price and delivery time is most suitable for the smart tunnel project therefore the project team have selected the Herrenknecht machine for tunnelling part.
18.104.22.168 The selected tunnel boring machine
Figure__ showing the cross section of the herrenknecht tunnel boring machine
The characterise of the herrenknecht tunnel boring machine as following table are refer to (MMC-GAMUDA JV, 2009)
1)Cutter head diameter 13.260mm
Length of shield: 10.245mm
2)Drive 4.000kW hydraulic
Weight of shield: 1.500t
3) Rotation 0-3rpm
Thrust cylinders: 48nos
4)Displacement thrust force:28.9KN
5)Length of machine:71m
6)Two trailer cars on haunch rails
7)Weight of machine: 2.500t
Tailseal: 3ros,wie brushes
Disc cutters:76 Nos
22.214.171.124 Special features of the Herrenknecht tunnel boring machine
According to the (MMC-GAMUDA JV, 2009) there are few special feature of the herrenknecht tunnel boring machine there are include as following:
The Spherical main bearing are able to negotiate tight up to minimum R200m curves
By using herrenknecht tunnel boring machine the movement along the drive are easier to cutter replacement due to the cutterhead retraction up to 400m by axial displacement.
“Articelated tailskin to negotiate to tight curves”
The tunnel boring machine is able to detect the karstic features and mixed face condition by using the cutter head tilt moment indicator.
“Two probe drilling rigs in fixed downward looking position, mounted on the erector the rig could drill through any port in the skin.126.96.36.199 The selected tunnel boring machine
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