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Democratic Leadership Or Participative Leadership

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Commerce
Wordcount: 4447 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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The activity of leading a group of people or an organization, or the ability to do this.In its essence, leadership in an organizational role involves establishing a clear vision, sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly,  providing the information, knowledge, and methods to realize that vision, and coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members or stakeholders. A leader comes to the forefront in case of crisis, and is able to think and act in creative ways in difficult situations. Unlike management, leadership flows from the core of a personality and cannot be taught, although it may be learned and may be enhanced through coaching or mentoring

Most common qualities of leadership is seen in leaders are:-

Autocratic leadership.

Bureaucratic leadership.

Charismatic leadership.

Democratic leadership or participative leadership.

Laissez-faire leadership.

People-oriented leadership or relations-oriented leadership.

Servant leadership.

Task-oriented leadership.

Transactional leadership.

Transformational leadership.

Autocratic Leadership

Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where a leader exerts high levels of power over his or her employees or team members. People within the team are given few opportunities for making suggestions, even if these would be in the team's or organization's interest.

Most people tend to resent being treated like this. Because of this, autocratic leadership usually leads to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover. Also, the team's output does not benefit from the creativity and experience of all team members, so many of the benefits of teamwork are lost.

For some routine and unskilled jobs, however, this style can remain effective where the advantages of control outweigh the disadvantages. Learn more...

Democratic Leadership or Participative Leadership

Although a democratic leader will make the final decision, he or she invites other members of the team to contribute to the decision-making process. This not only increases job satisfaction by involving employees or team members in what's going on, but it also helps to develop people's skills. Employees and team members feel in control of their own destiny, and so are motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward.

As participation takes time, this style can lead to things happening more slowly than an autocratic approach, but often the end result is better. It can be most suitable where team working is essential, and quality is more important than speed to market or productivity. Learn more...

Transactional Leadership

This style of leadership starts with the premise that team members agree to obey their leader totally when they take a job on: the transaction is (usually) that the organization pays the team members, in return for their effort and compliance. As such, the leader has the right to punish team members if their work doesn't meet the pre-determined standard.

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Team members can do little to improve their job satisfaction under transactional leadership. The leader could give team members some control of their income/reward by using incentives that encourage even higher standards or greater productivity. Alternatively a transactional leader could practice management by exception, whereby, rather than rewarding better work, he or she would take corrective action if the required standards were not met.

Transactional leadership is really just a way of managing rather a true leadership style, as the focus is on short-term tasks. It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work, but remains a common style in many organizations.

Transformational Leadership

A person with this leadership style is a true leader who inspires his or her team with a shared vision of the future. Transformational leaders are highly visible, and spend a lot of time communicating. They don't necessarily lead from the front, as they tend to delegate responsibility amongst their teams. While their enthusiasm is often infectious, they can need to be supported by detail people.

In many organizations, both transactional and transformational leadership are needed. The transactional leaders (or managers) ensure that routine work is done reliably, while the transformational leaders look after initiatives that add value.

The transformational leadership style is the dominant leadership style taught in the "How to Lead: Discover the Leader Within You" leadership program, although we do recommend that other styles are brought as the situation demands.

Using the Right Style Situational Leadership

While the Transformation Leadership approach is often highly effective, there is no one right way to lead or manage that suits all situations. To choose the most effective approach for you, you must consider:

The skill levels and experience of the members of your team.

The work involved (routine or new and creative).

The organizational environment (stable or radically changing, conservative or adventurous).

You own preferred or natural style.

A good leader will find him or herself switching instinctively between styles according to the people and work they are dealing with. This is often referred to as situational leadership.

For example, the manager of a small factory trains new machine operatives using a bureaucratic style to ensure operatives know the procedures that achieve the right standards of product quality and workplace safety. The same manager may adopt a more participative style of leadership when working on production line improvement with his or her team of supervisors

Comparison of leaders and their styles

Compare and Contrast Two Business Leaders--Li Ka-shing and Bill Gates

  Due to tremendous disparities in historical background and civilization between Chinese and Western countries, there exist remarkable differences between Chinese and Western business leaders. However, both of them still have similarities. This essay will take Li Ka-shing and Bill Gates as representatives to illustrate the differences and similarities between Chinese and Western business leaders.One obvious difference is background. As the most wealthy and successful businessman in Asia, Li had a miserable childhood. In order to escape the war, Li's family had to flee to Hong Kong when he was 12-year-old. Growing up in arduous circumstances, Li had to make a livelihood at the age of 14. In contrast, as the World's richest person, Gates was born in a better family with a lawyer father and a teacher mother. He received a decent education and started programming computer at the age of 13.

Other difference comes from business scope. Li's business develops into a large amount of areas, including plastics manufacturing, real estate, ports facilities, telecommunications, et cetera. While on the other hand, Gates is taking the leading role in the IT sector.

Despite the differences in background and business scope, Li and Gates share several similarities. Firstly, both of them commit to philanthropy. It was reported that Li had contributed more than $450 million to support the development of educational undertakings and medical care such as building hospitals and colleges (Investing Value, n.d.). Correspondingly, Gates set up a foundation-The Bill and Melinda Gate Foundation-to facilitate philanthropy, covering health care, educational investment and the development of information industry.

Secondly, both of them make a great achievement. According to statistics, Li's conglomerates have been a worldwide with representation in 40 countries (Investing Value, n.d.). Likewise, Gates'.


edit, v. (Ret Mar 2007). leadership toolbox. Retrieved from wwww.leadershiptoolbox.com

Nwlink. (2010). nwlink.com. Retrieved from www.nwlink.com/donclark/leader

various. (Ret. 2009). sample assignments. Retrieved from powerfulleaders.com: www.powerfulleaders.com/sampleassignments/management.html


Essay 2

Leadership and Cultural Awareness:-

Cultural awareness refers to understanding the differences between human communities based on their ideologies, values, beliefs, norms, customs, meanings and ways of life.

By increasing cultural awareness leaders interacting with diverse populations will develop greater sensitivity to culture, diversity and multicultural societies. You will also improve your capability to understand, and relate to a diverse range of people in an ethical, effective, and collaborative way.

Cultural Awareness can:

Promote leadership development through reflection, understanding, and learning

Reduce conflict through a heightened understanding of culture

Enhance self confidence in dealing with diversity

Build coping skills for dealing with negative emotions

Reduce individual stress by promoting understanding and acceptance.

Promote ethical practices by providing support and facilitating awareness


A Global Study in Diversity and Cultural Awareness developed with a learning objective to heighten awareness of how cultural, ethnic, gender and religious backgrounds can influence personal and professional identity, attitudes and behavior. The deeper impact of diversity has little to do with our physical appearances. It is our uniqueness that bridges the gap between our differences and the acceptance that as human beings we are all very deeply connected.

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In today's workplace people from many cultures and varied ethnicities must function well together, working as a team to accomplish the goals and represent the core values defined by your organization. Purpose Plan's definition of diversity addresses much more than the standard cultural, ethnicity, gender and age considerations. To reach the pinnacle requires respect, understanding and appreciation of others' unique characteristics. High performing teams are a result of self awareness, successful exploration and understanding of personality types and work styles, implementation of organizational dynamics and leadership development.

New Zealand can move beyond the cultural awareness of the other to exploring ways of being diverse through acceptance rather than resistance of difference.

Leadership and diversity must include ways to assist us as New Zealanders in social cohesion. It is much more than good behavior, or tolerance, a sort of good behavior of silent suffering in public, or understanding which implies that if you learn enough it will mask our own prejudices. No one is prejudice free.  It's about reaching into the very way we perceive our society and seeing that diversity is a part of it, rather than a resistance for its inclusion. Its about ensuring that we must become a participatory democracy for all.

Good leadership includes teaching in a not very diverse country, the language, the words and phrases, to speak about our own prejudices, to critically analyze our assumptions and expectations about new migrants and refugees into this country. We need to see who makes up the in-out groups of our society. We need to get beyond the solution of employing one ethnic person to solve all the cultural issues of that group.  Working towards a deeper understanding of, or relationship with a community requires more than an expansion of thinking, or some creative thinking. It needs spaces at a number of different levels, each a site of conversation that will enable minority voices to be heard at the appropriate volume and representation.  It means looking not just at the gains of culturally diverse conversations, but at the organizational structure and determination to share resources.

The Treaty of Waitangi

The Treaty of Waitangi (Maori: Trite o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and various Maori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand.

The Treaty established a British Governor of New Zealand, recognized Maori ownership of their lands and other properties, and gave the Maori the rights of British subjects. The English and Maori versions of the Treaty differed significantly, so there is no consensus as to exactly what was agreed to. From the British point of view, the Treaty gave Britain sovereignty over New Zealand, and gave the Governor the right to govern the country. Maori believed they ceded to the Crown a right of governance in return for protection, without giving up their authority to manage their own affairs. After the initial signing at Waitangi, copies of the Treaty were taken around New Zealand and over the following months many other chiefs signed. In total there are nine copies of the Treaty of Waitangi including the original signed on 6 February 1840. Around 500 chiefs, including at least 13 females, signed the Treaty of Waitangi

Until the 1970s, the Treaty was generally ignored by both the courts and parliament, although it was usually depicted in New Zealand history as a generous act on the part of the Crown. Maori have looked to the Treaty for rights and remedies for land loss and unequal treatment by the state, with mixed success. From the late 1960s Maori began drawing attention to breaches of the Treaty, and subsequent histories have emphasized problems with its translation. In 1975, the Waitangi Tribunal was established as a permanent commission of inquiry tasked with researching breaches of the Treaty by the Crown or its agents, and suggesting means of redress.

Today it is generally considered the founding document of New Zealand as a nation. Despite this, the Treaty is often the subject of heated debate, and much disagreement by both Maori and non-Maori New Zealanders. Many Maori feel that the Crown did not fulfill its obligations under the Treaty, and have presented evidence of this before sittings of the Tribunal. Some non-Maori New Zealanders have suggested that Maori may be abusing the Treaty in order to claim "special privileges". The Crown, in most cases, is not obliged to act on the recommendations of the Tribunal but nonetheless in many instances has accepted that it breached the Treaty and its principles. Settlements to date have consisted of hundreds of millions of dollars of reparations in cash and assets, as well as apologies.

This is the better example for leader, when they working in an environment where they have to lead people from different cultures. New Zealand business leaders also ready to aware this type of cross cultural communications to avoid confusions and misunderstandings. (Brookfield F. , 1999)


Brookfield, F. (. (1999). Waitangi and Indigenous Rights. Auckland Univercity.

Brookfield, F. (1999). republic.org. Retrieved from www.republic.org.nz/treatyofwaitangi


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Waitangi http://www.logosnoesis.com/Leaders/Cultural_Awareness

Essay 3

Influences on Leadership

There can be no leadership without influence, because influencing is how leaders lead. In their classic book on leadership, Leaders:  Strategies for Taking Charge, Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus echo this point: "There is a profound difference between management and leadership," they wrote, "and both are important. 'To manage' means 'to bring about, to accomplish, to have charge of or responsibility for, to conduct.' 'Leading' is 'influencing, guiding in direction, course, action, opinion.'" They add that "an essential factor in leadership is the capacity to influence."

Leaders lead by mobilizing people around a compelling vision of the future, by inspiring them to follow in the leader's footsteps. They show people what's possible and motivate them to make those possibilities real. They energize and focus people in ways that fulfill their dreams, give them a sense of purpose, and leave them with a profound sense of accomplishment when the work is done. Leaders lead by modeling ways of thinking or acting and by encouraging new ways of looking at situations, and by so doing they give people the words and the courage to make those new ways their own. The best leaders are teachers, mentors, and role models--and they accomplish the vast majority of their work through influence, not authority.

In many cases, leaders and managers are one in the same. The division vice president who leads a team of people to accomplish what they might not have thought possible is also a manager. The manager who oversees a team's task performance but also looks after the team members' career planning and coaches them on developing their skills is also a leader. The art of management and leadership is to know when to act as a manager and when to act as a leader, when to use authority and when to use influence, when to ask and when to tell, when to take over and when to let go. In every case, it is crucial for leaders and managers to understand the range of influence techniques they can use, know when and how to use them, build their power bases so that they have the capacity to be influential, and sharpen their skills so that they can influence people effectively.

Business Leader: - bill gates

Bill Gates is cofounder, chairman and chief software architect of Microsoft, the most successful software company in the world, renowned for making software that is powerful and innovative while still being user friendly. Microsoft now employs more than 55,000 people in 85 countries.

William H Gates III commonly known as Bill Gates was born on 28th October 1955 and raised in Seattle along with his two sisters. Bill became interested in programming at an early age while attending one of Seattle's most exclusive schools. Gates soon befriended a student named Paul Allen and together using the schools minicomputer they practiced their skills.

They turned to a computing company, in exchange for free use of a more powerful computer they searched for bugs in the computers system while also learning new languages. Bill went on to Harvard University and while there teamed up with Paul to write a new version of Basic programming language for the first personnel computer the Altair 8800. The company was impressed with Gates and Allen's work and licensed the software resulting in Gates and Allen forming the company Microsoft to develop software for other companies. Bill dropped out of Harvard to spend more time on the new business

Influencing Factors:-


He believes that if you are intelligent and know how to apply your intelligence, you can achieve anything. From childhood Bill was ambitious, intelligent and competitive. These qualities helped him to attain top position in the profession he chose.


Microsoft's vision is "A computer on every desk and Microsoft software on every computer he will continue to stomp out the competition until he dies. Every business and household must have a computer and must run Microsoft software", was the basic guiding vision of Bill Gates.


When as a student at the Harvard University, every single student would have wanted to be part of the great institute and graduate to be successful, Bill Gates decided to stop studying and pursue his dream of writing software's for every computer in theworldHe was just passionate about software, coding and technology thatincidentally also made him the richest man in the world


Gates and Allen were assisted by a staff of six, which included four programmers. In late 1977, Gates released a version of FORTRAN

Technical Mind

Bill Gates is born with a highly technical bent of mind. It is a gift of god to him. Microsoft has earned lots of success through this technical mind.

He Had a Vision

From day one, Gates dreamed of having a personal computer in every home, in every business and in every school. Throughout his career, he never once wavered from this dream. Focusing on software as the means to popularize the PC, Gates built his empire around this central vision and steered clear of all other distractions. And, the vision continues today."We are not even close to finishing the basic dream of what the PC can be," he says.

He Had a Solid Team

"If we weren't still hiring great people and pushing ahead at full speed, it would be easy to fall behind and become a mediocre company," says Gates. From Microsoft's inception, Gates prioritized his team, bringing in only trusted friends to help him get the company started. As the company grew, he insisted that they hire only the most capable young minds and strove to create a small and creative environment for them to thrive in .Microsoft succeeded not only because of Gates, but also because of the strong team that stood behind him.

He Took a Long-Term Approach

"In the decade ahead I can predict that we will provide over twice the productivity improvement that we provided in the '90s," said Gates. This bold statement captures Gates' philosophy behind his entire business. Never one to chase after instant success or an immediate pay-off, Gates began coding software with a view to the next fifty years. He hasconstantly tried to keep his company at the forefront of new technologicaldevelopments by funding new research initiatives. Gates' long-termapproach helped ensure Microsoft's remarkable staying power.

He Learned From Failure:

In hindsight, Gates' early failures seem so miniscule that they are almost laughable. But, as a struggling entrepreneur, he went through the same frustration, confusion and despair that others in his situation also face. What distinguishes Gates from the rest was his ability to rebound from his mistakes and take whatever lessons he could from them. He then became even more resolute and determined to see his vision realize.

He Never Stopped Asking Questions

"I believe that through our natural inventiveness, creativity andwillingness to solve tough problems, we're going to make some amazingachievements," said Gates speaking to the future possibilities for medicine, education and technology. When Gates faced a dilemma, he didn't stop and give up. He asked questions about what could be done tosolve the problem. From his business activities to his philanthropicefforts, Gates' curiosity and desire to constantly be learning has been one of the key factors behind his success."If I'd had some set idea of a finish line, don't you think I would have crossed it years ago?" asks Gates. Showing no signs of slowing down, Gates continues to fuel his business, inspire his workers and make his contribution to the global village."At Microsoft, there are lots of brilliant ideas but the image is that the yell come from the top," says Gates. "I'm afraid that's not quite right."While Gates has been the famous face of Microsoft for over thirty years, it took the help of numerous other trusted individuals to help realize the company's success. When Allen and Gates first met as students at Lakeside, they instantly formed a strong bond over their passion for computers. And, it was a bond that would last for the rest of their lives. Knowing each other's strengths and weaknesses, interests and passions and having a strong sense of trust enabled these two entrepreneurs to form one of the most successful working relationships of the 20th century. Gates, recognizing the importance of a solid and trustworthy team, also brought on two former high school friends, Ric Weiland and MarcMcDonald, to be part of the core Microsoft group. Gates knew that if Microsoft was going to get its feet off the ground, it was going to take the hard work and sweat that he trusted few others to put in. From day one, he understood the importance of having a small team that could join together each person's enthusiasm around a common goal. When Gates moved the operation to Seattle in 1979, he had a staff of 16 people. As Microsoft grew, so too did the number of employees that thecompany required. Gates continued to bring in trusted friends of hiswhose characters he understood and who he knew he could trust,including his friend from college, Steve Ballmer, who was thereafter incharge of human resources. "Steve and I were kind of driving the business and Paul and I were driving the technology," recalls Gates. "Our success has really been based on partnerships from the very beginning."The move to Seattle proved to be a boon for Microsoft in that it enabled the company to have a much wider range of skilled candidates to choose from. "In the world of software a lot of the brilliant ideas of Microsoft come from a broad set of great people we've been able to hire," says Gates. In one particularly key move, Ballmer hired Charles Simonyi, one of the original founders of the Xerox Palo Alto research lab, whose knowledge about graphical interfaces made a significant contribution to Microsoft's later graphical applications. As their number of staff began increasing into the thousands, thecompany typically focused on hiring people right out of school. "Most of our developers, we decided that we wanted them to come with clear minds, not polluted by some other approach, to learn the way that we liked to develop software, and to put the kind of energy into it that we thought was key," recalls Gates. Microsoft continues to seek out only the best in order to help it stay ahead of its increasingly fierce competition. "They key for us, number one, has always been hiring very smart people," says Gates. "There is no way of getting around, that in terms of IQ, you've got to be very elitist in picking people who deserve to write software. Ninety-five percent of the people shouldn't write complex software." By hiring the best and the brightest and carrying out work in small teams that stimulate free and creative thinking, Microsoft has managed to retain its competitive edge for over three decades.


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