Sequence of Development and the Rate of Development until Adulthood
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Development of Children and Young People
1.1. Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth- 19 years:
|Age||Social development||Physical development||Intellectual development||Communication and language development||Emotional development|
|0-3 months||A baby will only recognise their own needs at this stage, they will cry when they are hungry, wet or in pain.
They will seek comfort in their main care giver who they will have formed the closest bond.
|Babies grow very quickly at this stage and major developments in in brain function happen.
At this stage babies sleep a lot but will move around much more when awake, moving their arms and legs and trying to lift their head, ultimately learning to roll from their side to their back.
They will respond to multi-sensory activities such as rhymes or finger games.
|Babies can respond to clear movement and bright colours. They start to remember images at this stage and they can also recognise familiar faces and sounds.||Babies will start to turn their head towards sounds, this is indicating recognition to familiar sounds this in turn will be comforting to the baby.
At this stage a baby will also try to copy any sounds heard with babbling and gurgling. They will cry to gain attention from their care giver.
|A baby will develop a strong bond with their main care givers, usually their parents, at this stage.
A routine will be positive at this stage and any changes in this routine may cause a baby to become unsettled.
|3-9 months||A baby will start to respond to their name at this stage and become aware of unfamiliar and familiar surroundings and people. They will be wary in these situations.||At this stage the posterior fontanelle (gap in the skull) will begin to close and they will be able to hold their head up.
Eye colour becomes fixed. A baby will likely learn to roll and crawl during this stage.
They will enjoy songs and simple games at this point.
|Babies at this stage, will usually start to explore by putting objects into their mouth. They will usually be able to put shapes into containers during this stage.||Babies during the early stage will start to use their voice more and use sounds such as, ma or da, but at around 7 months will start to use two-syllable works like mama and dada.||Babies may become unsettled around unfamiliar people and surroundings. They will have developed a strong bond with their main care givers but will also start to show a stronger bond to people they are around on a regular basis. They will start to express dislike. They may become short-tempered, sullen and agitated while teething.|
|9-12 months||During this stage a child will start to understand and respond to basic instructions. They will start to shoe their independence but will still seek and enjoy cuddles.||A child will usually be starting to crawl or stand using an adult or furniture for support. They will develop the skills of passing objects between their hands as their hand to eye co-ordination improves. They will start to gain teeth and eat solid foods. They will also develop their grasp and start to use a spoon to feed themselves and use a cup.
They will develop the skills to stack objects into small towers.
|During this stage a child will start to recognise themselves in a mirror. They will start to learn to stack objects and hide objects in familiar places. They can’t distinguish between safe or dangerous at this stage.||At this stage a baby will start to make different sounds to show their feelings laughing, crying or squealing. They will be able to copy simple sounds for example, moo, woof.||During this stage a child may start to use the word ‘no’ and ignore instruction if they don’t want to do something.|
|12-18 months||Children at this stage will become more independent, amusing themselves for short periods of time. They will enjoy playing games and respond to basic instructions.||At this stage a toddler will start to lose their ‘baby fat’ due to learning to walk. They will also develop the skills to climb stairs on all fours. They reach for and point to objects they require, they will also learn to throw objects no longer required.||A child will point to objects they want or point and say the name of the object. They will continue to enjoy rhyme and action songs.||A child at this stage will be able to use single word sentences to express need for example ‘drink’ when thirsty or ‘bed’ when tired.||At this stage it is likely that a child will refuse to do certain tasks or activities such as, wearing a certain pair of socks.
They may also start snatching toys from other children.
|18-24 months||At this stage books and stories are enjoyed either one-to-one or in a small group. They may show an interest in helping to tidy away toys or imitating others while playing||At this stage a child will be able to stack blocks into taller towers.
The gap in the skull will close during this stage. They will also learn to walk upstairs on hands and feet. Some children may begin toilet training during this stage.
|At this stage a child may start to recognise pictures in books and objects into the correct shape hole. They will be able to follow simple instructions and have a longer concentration span.||A child’s speech will develop as they start to understand more words that are spoken to them and copy words like their name. They will start to ask question and their vocabulary could have around 150 words. Single words will become short phrases and ultimately sentences.||At this stage toddlers will start to give hugs and kisses but will still mostly only recognise their own needs. They may find it difficult to share which may lead to conflict. A toddler during this stage may start to show their independence and may become distressed when they don’t get their own way.|
|2-3 years||At this stage children will enjoy role-play and copying older children during games.
They will repeat games or activities that they enjoy.
|At this stage a child will develop their throwing and kicking skills and using door handles. They will likely have all their milk teeth. They’re balance will be much better, and they will start to climb one step at a time. They will start to use crayons to make marks on paper.||At this stage a child may enjoy making music as opposed to just making sound. They will now start to remember where they have left or hidden toys or other objects.||Children at this stage will start remembering words and actions to simple songs. Their vocabulary will have expanded to 100’s of words leading to longer and more complex sentences. They will start to ask more questions such as, Why?||At this stage children are often impatient and have temper- tantrums. Children of this age may show affection but will still focus mainly on their own needs. They will find it difficult to make choices so will usually take both options.|
|3-5 years||At this stage a child will have made friends outside of family. They will still need adult intervention to resolve conflict.||At this age a child may be able to dress themselves but may still need help with buttons, zips and laces. They will start to develop their fine motor skills using scissors. They will usually be learning to ride a bike or scooter.||At this stage a child will be able to tell a story in order. They can usually tell the difference between questions and statements.||At this stage a child may start to use past tense, their vocabulary will further increase to over 1000 words. Their speech will become clearer, and they will likely speak differently to an adult than they would another child.||Children at this age will still mostly only consider their own needs. They may often get upset or frustrated when things don’t work or happen as they want it too.|
|5-7 years||At this stage a child will be able to play games fairly, taking turns and playing by more complex rules. Friendships become important during this stage.||Children at this stage will be able to dress independently.
They are usually completely toilet trained by this stage but may still have occasional ‘accidents’. They may have developed the skills to run, jump, skip and ride a bike.
|During this stage a child will be able to recognise numbers and count to 20 by themselves. They may become more interested in reading independently.
They may also be able to distinguish lower case letters from capital letters.
|During this stage a child will be able to communicate ideas and feelings to their peers and adults. They will ask more questions but also be able to answer more fluently. They may be able to tell their name, age, address or birthday.||At this stage children will need reassurance when they experience failure. They will become much more confident when they fulfil tasks independently. They may start to test their care givers limits by using bad language or blaming others for their wrong doing to avoid disapproval. They may start to show off at this stage to make the people around them laugh.|
|7-12 years||Friendship becomes very important at this stage and a child may start to expand their friendship group.||From the age of about 8 for girls and 10 for boys a child will normally begin the transition through puberty.||A child at this point will be able to concentrate for longer and on more complex subjects. They will be able to use a lot more correct grammar and spelling.||At this stage a child will pick up a lot of their vocabulary and more complex words from the people around them. Their sense of humour will be well developed, they will enjoy sharing it with their peers.||Will be able to express their feelings. At this stage a child will start to understand other people’s feelings and see from their point of view. At this stage a child will be clear on the difference between right and wrong. Clear rules for behaviour must be set for them to be able to distinguish between winning fairy and only playing to win.|
|12- 19 years||At this stage a young person will likely have a well-formed group of friends that they like to spend time with. Sometimes their friendship group will be the most important thing to them.||By 15 years old a girl may be at their full height and may have transitioned through puberty. Boys will usually mature slower than girls physically and may still be growing late into their teenage years. During this stage sexual maturity is reached.
During this stage they’re able to develop their skills in sports, music or arts because their fine/gross motor skills control is increased.
|At this stage a young person may enjoy computer games that challenge them more such as, chess.||At this stage their humour may change as they start to understand sarcasm. Their confidence in using more complex words will develop. They will be able to understand more complicated language and grammatical structure. They will be able to argue a point and debate their point clearly and with reason.||There are a lot of changes that a teenager will go through which could result in mood swings and low self- confidence. They’re able to understand action and consequence.|
1.2 Explain the difference between sequence of development and the rate of development and why the difference is important.
The sequence of development is the pattern/order of development a child follows, for example a child crawling before walking or walking before running. Elements may be missed such as a child missing out crawling before walking, but the development will continue in what is known as an expected pattern of development.
The rate of development is the speed or age in which a child makes these developments. For example, one child may learn to crawl at 9 months old, but another child may not be able to crawl until 12 months old.
The sequence of development is a common order in most children, but the rate of development is different in every child.
It is important to know the difference between sequence of development and the rate of development to be able to identify any special needs a child may have during each stage of development. It is necessary to make effective plans to ensure the child is receiving all the necessary support in the areas they find most difficult.
2.1. Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors.
A person’s development can be affected by many personal factors, these are some personal factors that may affect development;
Health- If a child has poor health this will affect their physical development and their social development if they must take a lot of time off school. A child with asthma won’t be able to take part in physical activities as easily as a child without and may need an inhaler to help with breathlessness or may need to sit out of certain physical activities, resulting in a slower physical development rate. A child born to a mother who drinks excessively or takes drugs during pregnancy is at risk of being born prematurely or with a low birth weight which can lead to learning difficulties and a slow growth rate.
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A visual or hearing impairment would almost certainly affect all aspects of a person’s development. A person who doesn’t see well will often be excluded from some physical activities because of their safety so for example, may not be able to join in with a football game. A person who is hard of hearing will not be able to communicate as effectively as other children so may lack sufficient social skills.
Genetics- A child born with Down’s Syndrome will likely have mild to moderate learning difficulties as well as different physical appearance which could lead to being bullied by their peers. Cerebral Palsy is a non-progressive disability that affects the brain. It affects the motor functions of the body resulting in limited movement therefore, affecting physical development.
Communication/language difficulties- A person may be unable to communicate effectively with adults or other children because they struggle with speech, they may need to see a speech therapist. If a child doesn’t speak English as a first language this could cause a barrier and effect their social development and their relationship with their peers. A communication barrier could cause a child to feel left out and frustrated.
Learning difficulties- There are many different levels of learning difficulties, some are very minor and are not always noticed, but others are very apparent, and support must be put in place to help in any areas needed. A person with learning difficulties may struggle with reading, writing and socializing. They may get frustrated with themselves and others when they can’t communicate their needs effectively or can’t perform the task they have been set.
2.2. Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors:
There are a wide range of external factors that affect a person’s development such as;
Education- A child who hasn’t attended nursery or play group may be lacking the social development needed when they start school. A child/ young person may lack the confidence to ask for help in class therefore, affecting their intellectual development. A child may not receive the support needed at home to complete homework tasks or help with reading so may fall behind in school work.
Homelife- A child may live in a low-income family which could result in poor meals which could delay growth or cause health problems. A family may not be able to afford ‘fashionable’ clothes or a child may wear second hand clothes which could result in low self- confidence. Absent parents who are working to provide for their family. Living in a high-rise block of flats could mean there isn’t a yard or safe place to play outdoors therefore, hindering physical development. A child raised in a family with domestic violence or abuse may suffer from low self-esteem, anxiety issues or behavioural issues. A child who spends long hours watching television or playing computer games won’t get enough exercise possibly leading to being over weight and lacking social skills.
Care status- Looked after children often move regularly which will affect most aspects of development such as social, they may feel it isn’t worth forming bonds as they will leave again. Emotional, they may form close bonds with their peers then be upset when they must leave them. Education, they may fall behind on school work if they move regularly. It could also cause some separation and attachment issues which could cause a child not to want to go to school which will also impact their education.
Friendships made in school can have an impact on behaviour, motivation and attitude toward peers and adults. Peer pressure can have a massive effect on emotional development, trying to ‘fit in’ with a particular ‘group’ or ‘clique’ can make a child/young person feel un-worthy or have low self- esteem. If a child moves homes regularly they may feel it isn’t worth making new friends so will spend a lot of time on their own, this will impact their social and emotional development. Becoming friends with the ‘wrong’ group can impact on a young person’s behaviour, for example, a change in attitude towards adults and other peers, bad behaviour in class and at home.
2.3. Explain how theories of development and framework to support development influence current practice:
There are many theories about a child’s development. There are four areas that deal with how people develop these are; Cognitivism, behaviourist, humanism and constructivism.
Education based on the way we behave.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (B. F. Skinner) a graduate from England who also studied psychology at Harvard and gained his MA and PhD. Skinner was interested in how behaviour could be influenced with positive and negative reinforcement. His work has been applied in educational fields, rehabilitation and the re-establishment of movement and language after a stroke for example.
In all establishments there are strict rules or uidlines about how a child or young person would be approached or disciplined depending on their behaviour.
The humanist approach covers the identification of need and lack of need, the development of a plan to identify the lack or fulfil the need, how we identify and assess the outcome and the thought process involved in problem solving and choice making.
Carl Ransom Rogers, a psychologist who also worked with the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in New York. On a trip to China is where he realised that moral qualities were similar in all religions, resulting in him adopting a more liberal, all inclusive view which made him question the beliefs he had as a child.
Fulfilling the needs of each person in the relevent setting by identifying and evaluating each person’s need or lack of need and providing adequate support is the responsibility of all educational establishments.
‘Learning through doing’.
This involves not only building new frameworks but modifying them in view of new information and experience, as well as studying existing information and frameworks. Self-motivated children who love to learn will have the best experience with this method.
In our setting the children in the 4+ (reception) unit will learn everyday by playing games without realising they are learning. For example, there is always more than one choice in activities encouraging the children to decide between the activities. The teachers in this area will demonstrate how each activity works rather than just explain the rules of each activity in line with the theories developed by Maria Montessori.
Jean Piaget – a researcher from Switzerland believed that how children think and learn depends on their stage of development and their age because how and what a child learns is based on their life experiences. As their life and experiences change they may change or adapt what they think for example, a child who has only ever seen purple flowers would believe that all flowers were purple.
Piaget divided his theories into four stages;
1. The Sensorimotor Stage – (birth to 2 years)
During this stage it was observed that for a child, if something was present it existed if not it no longer existed.
2. The Preoperational Stage – (2 years to 7 years)
During this stage it was observed that a child would only focus on their own perspective and could only concentrate on one thing at a time.
3. The Concrete Operational Stage (7 years to 12 years)
During this stage it was observed that a child could concentrate on more than one thing at a time and that a child could think abstractly.
4. The Formal Operational Stage (12 plus years)
During this stage it was observed that young people were able to understand consequences and consider problems logically.
Using Piaget’s theories practitioners use these guides to create activities for the children in their care based on their stage of development and age.
We now have numerous assessment s in education to assess what stage a child or young person is at during each stage of development.
3.1. Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods;
Children and young people’s development is monitored in many ways. Their development is monitored regularly to be able to find any instances where development may be lacking or not following the expected pattern and early interventions can be put into place. Development is monitored by;
Gathering information from parents, carers, teachers and even the child themselves. Gathering as much information as possible from the people closest to the child will help the practitioner to be aware of any issues noticed by people who have been with the child as they have experienced many different situations and how they have coped.
A health visitor will usually carry out a progress check at the age of two years, during the progress check they will observe a child playing, how well they are learning language skills and their growth. Parents will be present during the progress check and will be asked questions about their child and any concerns they may have about any aspects of the child’s development. All aspects of the observation will be discussed with the care giver. The progress check is carried out so that practitioners can identify any developmental delays early and put in place any interventions.
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Observing a child in different surroundings. During observations a practitioner will observe how a child behaves within their friendship group, how they react to their surroundings and how they play and learn. A practitioner may or may not interact with the child depending on the nature of the observation. All information collected during observations will be recorded and analyzed to check for any concerns about a child’s development.
Growth assessments are usually carried out in their first year of primary school (reception or 4+) and their last year of primary school (year 6). They will be weighed, and their height measured. The information gathered during these assessments will be analysed and then shared with parents and carers advising them on whether their child’s growth is developing at the expected rate. If a child is deemed to be under weight or over weight practitioners will advise parents/carers on how to help their child change their lifestyle to either gain or lose the necessary weight.
During their time at school a child/ young person will sit many assessments in reading, writing and mathematics, these could be SAT’s, times table tests or spelling tests to name a few. These are necessary to ensure that each child is receiving the level of support needed to succeed to the best of their ability in their intellectual development. Parents and carers will be kept updated on their child’s development regularly.
3.2. Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern:
Many factors contribute to a child or young person not following the expected pattern of development,
Disabilities; Including learning disabilities and physical disabilities. A disability may include sight or hearing impairments which will impact a child’s social development and their educational development. A child with a physical disability such as, cerebral palsy may affect a child’s ability to walk, run or play affecting their confidence and ability to socialise with their peers. A child/young person with learning difficulties including undiagnosed conditions such as, dyslexia or autism may not be able to concentrate for long periods of time during lessons and may not reach reading or writing milestones at the same time as their peers causing frustration or acting out.
Health related issues; A child with poor health for example, asthma would struggle to join in with some physical activities or need an inhaler to help open air ways. If a child is born with a low birth weight it could lead to a slower rate of development. A child who has a poor diet may suffer from a growth impairment and ill health.
Poor communication; If there is a language barrier, for example English isn’t their first language a child may not be able to understand the tasks being set or communicate their needs effectively which could result in them not receiving the appropriate help need to reach milestones or targets in their development.
Environment; Where or how a child is raised can impact a child/young person’s development massively. A child born into poverty may not eat well which may cause delays in their growth and poor health. A child born to a mother who drinks excessively or takes drugs during pregnancy can be at risk of low birth weight causing not only issues with growth but also at risk of reduced brain function causing learning difficulties. A child who is raised in a family with domestic violence can grow up to have emotional issues including low self-esteem and behavioural issues which will have a negative impact on their development. A child who has parents who are too ‘busy’ to help with homework or listen to them read may suffer academically because they are not able to reach targets as fast as other children who get lots of help and support at home.
3.3. Explain how disability may affect development;
Disability may affect a child/young person’s development in several ways whether it be a physical disability or a diagnosed or undiagnosed learning disability;
Physical disabilities may include,
Down’s Syndrome; Down’s syndrome is caused by an extra chromosome in your cells. A person with Down’s syndrome will have mild to moderate physical and intellectual delays, but also differ in appearance which can lead to bullying in school therefore, impacting their social development as well as the intellectual delays impacting their educational development. some people with Down’s syndrome will also have other health related issues such as, heart problems and sometimes hearing and sight impairments.
Cerebral palsy; A condition that affects movement and co-ordination. A child/young person with cerebral palsy will not only struggle with physical development but may also suffer with speech and language issues as well as other health complications such as, epilepsy and seizures.
Cystic fibrosis; A genetic condition affecting respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems. It affects the sweat and mucus glands making mucus dense and sticky which in turn causes the air passages in lungs to become blocked and trap infection causing bacteria and ultimately causes damage to lungs. Other symptoms of cystic fibrosis are liver damage, poor growth and diarrhea.
Fetal alcohol syndrome; When an expectant mother drinks excessively they are exposing the unborn child to a similar strength of alcohol as the mother is taking in. Symptoms are different for each pregnancy, however, may include learning difficulties, slow physical growth rate, damage to major organs such as, the heart, liver and kidneys. There is no proven ‘safe amount’ of alcohol during pregnancy but it is recommended that expectant mothers should not drink any alcohol at all.
Learning disabilities can include;
Autism; Autism is a developmental disability that affects a person’s communication and how they understand the world. A child/young person with autism struggles to understand tone of voice or facial expressions. They can feel isolated from their peers as they find interaction difficult. This may very well affect their social and emotional development. Each person with autism have very different experiences, no two people on the autism spectrum will present the same way.
Asperger’s Syndrome; A disorder closely related to autism. People with Asperger’s are usually quite intelligent and don’t have the learning disabilities related with autism although, they may still struggle to understand and process language.
Dyslexia; A child with dyslexia will find it difficult to learn to read and write, this will certainly impact their educational development as well as their self-worth and may also cause behavioural problems.
Each disability will affect each child/young person differently and affect each person’s development differently. Any learning disability can be diagnosed at any point of development. The earlier the identification for the child and for putting in place support and help needed to help the child reach each stage of development.
A lot of physical disabilities will be obvious from birth and any medical procedures can be performed and any help needed can be put in place as soon as possible to aid all aspects of development.
3.4. Explain how different types of intervention can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern;
When a child is not following the expected pattern of development there are many resources that can be used to help them reach their full potential such as;
Health visitors- Usually make home visits to new parents. They help to educate parents on vaccinations, expected development, and with medical advice. They can recognise and efficiently help mothers suffering from post-natal depression. Health visitors will weigh the baby when they visit and advise on any concerns a parent may have.
SENCO- Usually work in a school setting, they are responsible for identifying and offering proper support for children with special needs. They will arrange any referrals needed and organise any special measures needed to support the child.
Speech and language therapists- They asses a child’s capability to communicate through speech and language. They work with children to help them to progress their language skills. They also help to educate parents and staff so that they’re able to work with the child at home or in a classroom using for example, songs and rhymes.
Social workers- Work for social services and are a support system for parents, carers, children and young people with any struggles. They support families living in poverty or with health issues, trying to keep families together where possible and providing caring homes when a child becomes a ‘looked after’ child.
Child Psychologists- Give advice and counselling to children and young people with emotional, social or learning difficulties.
Psychiatrists- Are doctors who specialise in mental health. They will make a diagnosis and plan treatment for children and young people with mental health issues. They will provide counselling and advice about mental health.
Physiotherapists- Help with rehabilitation when a child has an illness, injury or condition that restricts movement. Physiotherapists help to improve movement, range of motion, soft tissue movement and strength.
Play workers- Help to observe and assess hospitalised children through play, helping to aid a child’s recovery without any fears.
Charities and voluntary agencies- Including Bernardos or the NSPCC. They give support and advice to children, young people or families helping them to feel safe and secure.
Youth justice team- Work with social services helping young people to get support with anti -social behaviour. Helping them to improve their attitude, behaviour and educational development.
Nurse specialist- Advise and support young people and their families who are living with chronic conditions and need specialist care.
4.1. Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition;
It is important to recognise any speech, language or communication delays as early as possible to be able to offer any support that may be required by a child in these areas as soon as possible. There will usually be concern about language delays if a child is not showing any signs of speech by the time they are 12 months old. If these delays are not acknowledged early they can affect a child/young person’s behaviour, emotional development, ability to make and maintain relationships and their education. Some children will develop normal speech and language skills by the time they start school without intervention but, it is vital to discover those who won’t and refer them to the necessary professionals. Children who are known to be high-risk such as, premature babies, children with Down’s syndrome or cerebral palsy, children with fetal alcohol syndrome or children who suffer from ear infections will be assessed early and frequently to assist in identifying any delays. However, children who have no apparent risk factors should be assessed if they are not at a similar level of speech and language development as other children in their age group.
To identify any speech, language or communication delays early there will be evaluations carried out such as, observations or reports from parents or teachers to evaluate the level of support that the child will require. There are many ways to help a child with speech and language delays such as, through play (dolls, puppets), reading and singing rhymes. The first step is to try to discover the reason for the difficulties and then how to help them to over -come these difficulties in the best way for the child to successfully improve their language and communication abilities.
The later a language delay is identified the harder it will be for a practitioner to help correct as a child/young person will have much more work to do to correct the issue.
4.2. Explain how multi agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication;
When a speech, language or communication delay has been identified in a child, many professionals will come together to create a plan of action to help the child and their care givers.
Depending on the age of the child when the delay is identified determines who will refer the child to a specialist. A parent or carer may have concerns about their child and take them to see their doctor or health visitor. Usually a doctor will make a referral to have the child’s hearing and sight tested first before making a referral to a speech therapist.
A teacher may notice a child struggling to communicate with their peers and other adults. They may arrange a meeting with the care givers to discuss reasons for this. With the care givers permission SENCO may become involved to assess the child to see if their communication difficulties are related to any other learning difficulties. All findings would then be reported back to the care giver and a plan of action developed. A referral to a speech therapist may be made, and the child will be assessed to determine the most effective course of action to gain the best outcome for the child’s development. An educational psychologist may become involved if a child’s communication difficulties are linked to other learning difficulties. A speech therapist will have regular sessions with a child either in a school setting so that they can see how the child communicates with their peers and teachers, or one-to-one so that they can assess progress made. These sessions will last for as long as the child needs the extra help and support to achieve their milestones. A speech therapist will also give the parents activities to do with their child to help with the treatment at home.
It is very important to the child’s development that once a language issue is identified and an action plan is put in place that all professionals and parents/carers work together to help the child to overcome any barriers and develop their language and communication skills as effectively as possible.
4.3. Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication;
Children learn to communicate and socialise through play, whether it be dressing up (role play), reading stories or singing songs.
Adults can easily join in with all activities such as, role play. In our setting the role play area was a supermarket, some children worked on the tills and took money for items while others used baskets and trollies to do their ‘shopping’. Children using the tills added up the items and asked for money and spoke about the items being bought. Children doing the shopping spoke about what items they were buying and why, for example, one child bought cereal and milk to eat for breakfast.
Encouraging a child to copy the words you use will help develop their language skills or adding an extra word for example, if a child says ‘’bowl’’ you could copy what they have said and then add the colour of the bowl ‘’green bowl’’ then encourage the child to copy what you have said. Using a child’s name will encourage them to listen. Using statements like ‘’I wonder what shape that is’’ rather than questions like ‘’what shape is that?’’ will encourage a child to answer without fear of answering a direct question wrong. Keep eye contact while giving the child time to respond, give praise and reassurance even if they make a mistake and then steadily and clearly repeat the word correctly.
Reading is also a good way to help a child develop the language skills needed. Encouraging the child to tell the story from the pictures will help them to learn new words and encourage them to tell their own story according to the pictures. This will also help them find new ways of communicating with their peers and other adults.
Action songs such as, head, shoulders, knees and toes are a good way to help a child develop speech and language skills. They encourage a child to point to parts of their body while learning what they are called. Missing out words for example, head, shoulders, knees and —- will help a child to remember the words and help them develop confidence in knowing they have remembered the words and actions without prompting. The repetitiveness of the songs will also inspire them to join in and learn new words.
Painting will help a child’s language skills as they will like explaining what they have painted and the colours they have used. When talking about their painting use single words such as the colour ‘yellow’ or shape ‘circle’.
5.1. Explain how different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development;
There are 5 types of transitions/changes that occur during our lives, they are; Social development, physical development, intellectual development, communication development and emotional development (SPICE). Some transitions are common in all lives (toilet training or starting school) others are less common (family bereavement or abuse). Some of these changes will have a positive effect and others a negative effect on a child or young person.
Starting or changing school could have a major impact on a child or young person’s development in most areas. Their social development may suffer if they find it difficult to build new relationships. They may not be comfortable talking to the new adults they have contact with, which will impact their emotional and intellectual development. They may not feel confident enough to approach an already established friendship group to ask if they can join in or may be nervous of the older children around them.
Going through puberty is likely to be one of the most dramatic transitions a child will go through. Their bodies will change in many ways over a few years. These changes will have a major impact on a child’s emotional and physical development in both positive and negative ways.
Toilet training can potentially be a huge confidence booster for some children but have the opposite effect for others. Some children don’t recognise the sensation of needing to use the toilet so may still have accidents and miss the security of a nappy or pull up. Not making an issue of accidents and reassuring a child that this is ok will help.
If a child experiences abuse whether it be emotional, physical or sexual they may experience withdrawal from people close to them or clinginess to the person they feel safest with. They may have mood swings and angry outbursts or be very emotional. They may find it difficult to sleep, eat or concentrate. In the long term all their feelings could lead to low self-esteem, self harming and strained relationships.
5.2. Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition;
All children and young people will experience changes/transitions at different stages of their lives. How these changes affect a person depends on the change/transition, the person experiencing the change/transition and the support they receive while experiencing these changes. Positive relationships during periods of transition are very important to help overcome anxieties and aid emotional development.
Some changes are a part of all children’s lives for example starting school or reaching puberty. Others will only affect a small number of people such as, moving to a new city or even a new country. Transitions can happen over time for example, getting used to the idea of having a new sibling during the 9 months of pregnancy, or they can be sudden for instance, an unexpected death in the family.
A child whose parents are getting a divorce for example, needs to be shown that they are still loved by both parents and that they are not at fault for the divorce. Both parents must make a determined effort to be there for their child and make them feel safe and secure throughout the process. If a child doesn’t get the reassurance they need during this transition it could lead to them blaming themselves for the break down for their family causing low self-esteem and behavioural problems. They could feel unloved and uncared for which could result in mental health issues or self-harming.
When reaching puberty, a child will need support during all the changes they will go through not only physically but mentally. They may become confused or embarrassed about the way their body looks during the changes. Girls could feel conscious of their growing breasts or the changes to the shape of their body (forming curves). Staring to menstruate is a major change for a girl and a conversation about what will happen and what to do in this situation will definitely help a young girl navigate her way through this change with much more confidence and less worry about what is happening. They need reassurance that all these changes are normal for pre-teens and teenagers and that their friends are likely experiencing the same changes. An open conversation with an adult who has already experienced all these changes may really help them put everything into perspective and help them to feel more confident within themselves. Boys also have many issues with body change such as, growing facial hair or their voice breaking. These could become issues especially with teenage boys as their voice breaks, their voice may become high pitched an of course teenagers will pick up on any insecurity someone has, which could lead to teasing. Some boys grow facial and body hair very quickly and must shave regularly this can also cause them to lack confidence as they may cut themselves while shaving causing more teasing. Again, an open and honest conversation and a little help to overcome these issues will go a long way to helping them gain confidence that they can move on from each transition with a better understanding and more confidence.
Sometimes when a loved one passes away it is easy as an adult to concentrate on your own grief and not understand the affect it has on younger members of the family especially if it is a close relative for example your mother or father. Young people will try to be strong for other family members and don’t always have an outlet for their own grief. This can be a bad thing for any person but for a young person it can influence other aspects of their development. Ensuring that you include younger children in conversations about the loved one and sharing happy memories or maybe choosing flowers for the funeral or letting them attend the church service to say goodbye could have a positive effect on their mental development helping them not to feel excluded or unimportant.
A new baby arriving is also a major change in a child’s life, they may feel as though they are being replaced. Constant reassurance and involvement during the pregnancy is vital, also allowing a child to help when the baby arrives will help massively with their confidence and reassure them that they are needed and wanted. Helping to feed the new baby or choose an outfit for them to wear will boost a child’s feeling of being helpful.
Positive relationships during transitions are very important to children and young people so that they have someone to discuss what’s happening, explain anything they are struggling with, reassure them that everything is ok and help to distract them with activities and outings.
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