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Road and Transport Engineering Assignment

Paper Type: Free Assignment Study Level: University / Undergraduate
Wordcount: 2417 words Published: 18th Aug 2022

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Problem 1: Strategic Transport Planning

1.1 comparative characteristics

Research carried out in the last ten years has highlighted how traffic congestion has worsened in Australian cities. In fact, studies revealed that Sydney drivers spend an extra 33% in average of travel time spent in traffic. As a result, most individuals are faced with a dilemma every morning when deciding which method of transport should be utilised to their facility of education; Public transport system, or face the increasingly congested motorways and roads. Despite this, regardless of the mode chosen, both options give society viable methods to transport from one location to the next. One promising route for both motor vehicles users and commuters is the Thirroul Tunnel and F6 Motorway development. This is an excellent way to travel from the southern region, through Sydney’s east, eventually reaching the Northern suburbs. The thorough studies and research of the F6 Extension Scoping project and Rail Improvement- Thirroul Tunnel Study, the various modes of transport can be assessed, revealing the main objective that will allow for improved features, consequently determining the most viable method through analysing the pros and cons.

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A reoccurring theme in the Scoping report as well as the Study is of course the cost of travel and time expended while travelling. These two factors can have significant impacts on a individuals study or work routine. It can be argued that from the travellers perspective, longer commutes will always be preferred over a more expensive trip. The two main ways for those in South Sydney to reach Central Sydney are the railways and motorways and these are two viable methods which compete with each other to provide the best trip both cost-wise as well as efficiency and accessibility.

This development of the F6 Motorway Extensions as well as the Thirroul Tunnel have successfully expanded the commuters options of travelling for those transporting to and from Southern Sydney and Northern Sydney. The tunnel and the motorway have obviously had many positive impacts for travellers. Despite this however, the construction will not go without criticism. This project is extremely expensive and will cost approximately 600 million dollars which will also have detrimental effects on the environment, agriculture as well as the economy throughout the duration of construction which will take anywhere between four and eight years to complete. Not only does this project present a number of problems for the designers and overall execution of the project, there will also be massive problems for the culture and environment that will be felt by a plethora of communities and entities in the construction industry. Accompanied by a tax rise, commuters of the tunnel and motorways will deal with the implications of noise and air pollution for years to come. Other problems that will arise include the indigenous and sacred heritage sites which currently exist, as well as the farmland which cannot be disturbed as this can detriment the plant life and animals which consequently will affect the income for the farmers.

1.2 Impacts on Centre Functions

As mentioned earlier, a significant element in determining the more viable option of transport is efficiency and convenience of the infrastructure. For travellers using the motorway, there are a range of vehicles to be utilised ranging from cars and motorbikes to trucks and vans as a means of not only transporting themselves but possibly many other things including deliveries and reports. This is advantageous as it provides users with a sense of freedom as opposed to being limited in a carriage being held up by multiple stoppages throughout the journey. On the flip side, there will almost definitely be heavy congestion on the roads, which will especially impact those driving in peak hours, whether in the morning or evening. Contrastingly, the Thirroul Tunnel has the capability of carrying an approximate 7,300 commuters daily which is an increase of 16% from the current studies. Moreover, those involved with developing and constructing the Thirroul tunnel have to account for the demography and societal shifts in the community, as well as understanding their needs. In order for the projected tunnel to succeed, it must cater to its customers. This will be achieved by facilitating stops at facilities, universities, CBD’s, schools and centres. This is a common feature of railways and for this reason their popularity as a choice for travellers has risen. This is advantageous as unlike the motorway, commuters will have easy access simply through being in walking distance from their destination upon getting off there stop. On the other hand, those choosing to drive face the congestion of roads combined with the difficulty of finding an appropriate parking spot.

In recent years, there has been an uproar for the facilitation of quicker travel times especially for those transporting to and from Southern Sydney to Central Sydney,in response to the ever-increasing population, international students and a greater need for cheaper, and more efficient travel options moving from one suburb to another. As society and the economy continue to grow, there has been a boom in both the construction and business industries in Sydney, which has seen the need to update and upgrade motorways and railways, with both being options to move passengers and freight. Time is of the highest priority for employees and companies, thus it is also of the highest priority to minimise travelling time, so to minimise detriment faced by the business. Upon studying the more time efficient travel mode and overall consistency, it is undoubtable that the projected Thirroul Tunnel will be a more secure method especially if travelling during the peak hours it eliminates the congestion on the road as well as essentially having no risk of delays caused by accidents that can occur while travelling on motorways.

1.3 Recommendations

Upon carrying out study and research, the conclusion can be drawn that whether you use the Thirroul Tunnel or the F6 Motorway, there is essentially the same impacts on the culture, society and economy since they have equal costs as well as societal implications in regards to delay and increasing pollution. In addition, both modes of transport are excellent methods of making a trip more timely, however the railway gets the upper hand over the motorway in this department particularly due to the congestion faced during peak hours and the inconsistency faced on the roads. The railway is the more efficient and safe option of transport, and it also provides the opportunity to study or complete tasks whilst travelling.

Problem 2: Applying Level of Service(LOS) Criteria

2.1 Public Transport Service Selection

I have selected the Bankstown to Newtown service which links the T3 Bankstown Line to the T2 Airport, Inner West & South Line as the public transport service route to study and analyse.

Figure 1 Sydney Train Network Map

The above figure portrays the Sydney Trains Network including 7 lines. In regards to the route I selected, it is clearly seen, highlighted in yellow which initiates on the T3 Bankstown Line, changing to the T2 Airport, Inner West and South Line at Redfern, with the final destination being Newtown.

2.2 Level of Service to three Criteria

2.21 Routes

This Bankstown to Newtown Line provides identical routes, however one contains an extra stop. The first service will make stops at all the transit stops along this service until it eventually arrives at Redfern which will then go to Newtown directly. This equals to a total of twelve interchange points spread across the duration of the trip. On the other hand, the second service offers a more timely option, 10 minutes more timely to be precise, as there are only 4 interchange points between the beginning and Redfern. On the flip side, the first service is offered more frequently, at a rate of 4 times an hour where as the second service is provided half as many times in an hour, equating to a total possibility of 6 trips an hour. This service is undoubtedly an A-level as a result of its facilitation of dual-routes, allowing for increased stops on service as well as a quicker travel time with less stops

2.22 Time Availability

As mentioned previously, this Bankstown to Newtown service has 6 possible commutes in the space of an hour, which comes down to one trip approximately every ten minutes. The difference in time between the two services is roughly 10 minutes with the firsts service averaging a 43 minute travel time, and the second service averaging a 33 minute travel time. There is a high level of accessibility for the two services, beginning as early as 4 am, and finishing as late as 11:37 pm. Consequently, The LOS for this service route is also an A grade highlighted through its long cycle as well as ease of use through apps and websites.

2.23 Congestion and Comfortability

On an average week day, the peak hours are typically between 6 and 9 am, and a second time between 4:30 and 7 pm. For commuters travelling at either of these times, they may face a high level of traffic and congestion. This is generally not a massive area of concern, when it comes to congestion, the focus is placed more on the comfort of the commuter rather than accessibility. It is fair to assume that during these peak hours, travellers may face discomfort for extended periods of time, and as a result can really dampen the experience of their trip. For this reason, This service’ LOS would only be a C grade during these peak hours as a result of the extended period of discomfort. However, any times outside of peak hour, this service receives a B grade, shy of an A grade because of the older, outdated trains which are still commonly used for this line

2.3 Interchange Points

For this service line, the interchange point is at Redfern station. As seen in the above figure, Redfern station, not only for the T3 Bankstown line, but 3 different lines, is a multi connected KIP. In regards to point 2.2, as well as the benchmarks for this selected line, the conclusion can be drawn that this service Line receives an A grade LOS for the Redfern interchange point as this makes it a versatile and diverse service with many possibilities on offer. All four lines connecting to the interchange points means next to no down time throughout commutes and allows for a more timely method of transport from station to station. Similar to the selected route, Redfern provides Long cycle hours starting from the early morning, and finishing late at night. Moreover, the position of the Redfern station is advantageous as it is located in a heavily populated area meaning there is high accessibility to services such as stores, plazas CBD’s and educational facilities as well as linking the railway with the bus service as a result of the bus stop just outside Redfern station. Despite the higher level of congestion of this line, in comparison with the various other routes provided at Redfern station, the two selected service lines will not face problems when it comes to population density inside the train. This service receives an A grade for congestion despite the minimal wait time between trains.


Conclusively, it can be stated that both lines running on this service from Bankstown to Newtown receives an A grade LOS. This is demonstrated through its long, flexible hours, making it highly accessible, the dual route as well as the high level of comfort outside of peak hour times. It provides those from South west Sydney the ability to travel to such a lively area for studying, work or leisure as well as providing the Redfern station Interchange point. On the contrary, I recommend upgrading this line to only use newer trains. The older trains are significantly less comfortable, however through this change, the LOS level could rise to a B grade during peak hour times.


MHD supply chain news,2020, ‘Australia’s most traffic congested city revealed’, viewed 10 April 2021


NSW Government 2019, M6 (F6) Stage 1 Motorway, viewed 10 April 2021, https://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/Assess-and-Regulate/State-Significant-Projects/M6-Stage-1-Motorway

Transitmaps.net 2021.(online) viewed 14 April 2021


Transportnsw.info 2021.(online) viewed 17 April 2021


NSW Government, F6 Extension State Significant Infrastructure Scoping Report, viewed 17 April 2021


The New Daily, 2015,’ THE BIGGEST CHALLENGE FACING AUSTRALIAN CITIES’ viewed 17 April 2021



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